Chemistry Revision Pack - PDF

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CHEMISTRY REVISION GUIDE
for CIE IGCSE Coordinated Science (2012 Syllabus)
This revision guide is designed to help you study for the Some very useful websites to help you further your
chemistry part of the IGCSE Coordinated Science course. understanding include:
·http://www.docbrown.info/ - whilst not the
The guide contains everything that the syllabus says you prettiest site this contains a lot of very useful and
need you need to know, and nothing extra. nicely explained information.
·http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/scienc
The material that is in the supplementary part of the e/ - well presented with many clear diagrams,
course (which can be ignored by core candidates) is animations and quizzes. Can occasionally lack
highlighted in dashed boxes: depth.
·http://www.chemguide.co.uk/ - whilst mostly
targeted at A-Levels this site contains very detailed
information suitable for those looking to deepen
their knowledge and hit the highest grades.
Whilst this guide is intended to help with your revision, it
should not be your only revision. It is intended as a Finally, remember revision is not just reading but should
starting point but only a starting point. You should make be an active process and could involve:
sure that you also read your text books and use the ·Making notes
internet to supplement your study in conjunction with ·Condensing class notes
your syllabus document. ·Drawing Mind-maps
·Practicing past exam questions
Whilst this guide does contain the entire syllabus, it just ·Making flashcards
has the bare minimum and is not in itself sufficient for The golden rule is that what makes you think makes you
those candidates aiming for the highest grades. If that is learn.
you, you should make sure you read around a range of
sources to get a deeper knowledge and understanding. Happy studying, Mr Field.

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C1: THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF
MATTER Solids, Liquids and
Atom: The smallest particle An atom:
of matter
Some atoms: Gases
Molecule: A small particle Molecules of an element: Molecules of a
made from more than one compound:
atom bonded together
Element: A substance A solid element: A gaseous element:
SOLIDS LIQUIDS AND GASES
made of only one type of
The particles in solids, liquids and gases are held near to each other by forces of
atom
attraction.…read more

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PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY best possible separation of spots.
C2: EXPERIMENTAL Paper chromatography is a technique that can be
used to separate mixtures of dyes or pigments and
TECHNIQUES is used to test the purity of a mixture or to see
what it contains. Firstly a very strong solution of
the mixture is prepared which is used to build up a
FILTRATION
small intense spot on a piece of absorbent paper.
Used to separate solids
This is then placed in a jar of solvent (with a lid).…read more

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C3: ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND A NOBLE MATTER
Group VIII: Noble Gases
H
The Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar
Group VII: Halogens
COMPOUNDS ­ Structures and Non-metals
Group I: Alkali Metals
Group II: Alkali-Earth
etc) have full outer shells
containing either 2 or 8
Bonding electrons. This is very stable
which is why the Noble gases
ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT/CONFIGURATION Transition Metals
are so unreactive.
Electrons are arranged around atoms in specific shells.…read more

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C3: ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND
Group VIII: Noble Gases
IONIC BONDING
An ionic bond is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Cations (positive) are formed
Group VII: Halogens
COMPOUNDS ­ Bonding and Non-metals
when atoms (usually metals) lose electrons. Anions (negative) are formed when atoms (usually non-
metals) gain electrons.…read more

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CHEMICAL FORMULAS You may be asked to
C4: STOICHIOMETRY ­ Formulas tell you the atoms that make up a write a formula given a
compound diagram of a molecule
Formulas and Equations Eg 1. H2O ­ two H, one O
for example glucose.
By counting you can see
Eg 2. C2H6O ­ two C, six H, one O
there are 6 carbons,
Eg 3. Mg(OH)2 ­ one Mg, two O, two H*
SYMBOL EQUATIONS 12 hydrogens and
Eg 4.…read more

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THE MOLE
C4: STOICHIOMETRY ­ The A mole is 6.02x1023 of something. It is chosen so that a mole of something has the same mass in
grams (molar mass, Mm) as its formula mass. For example the Mr of water is 18.02 so the Mm of water
Mole Concept is 18.02g; the Mr of decane is 142.34 so the Mm of decane is 142.34g. Importantly this means that
18.02 g of water and 142.34g decane contains the same number of molecules.…read more

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ELECTROLYSIS (right) positive copper ions move to the cathode
C5: ELECTRICITY AND Electrolysis is a process in which electricity is and form copper metal. Negative chloride ions
used to break compounds down into their more to the anode and form chlorine gas.
CHEMISTRY elements. The mixture being electrolysed is
called an electrolyte and must be liquid (either
melted or dissolved) to allow the ions to move.…read more

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QUANTIFYING ENERGY
C6: ENERGY CHANGES IN Using the ideas you learn in physics about specific heat capacity, you may have to calculate the
amount of energy released by one mole of a substance.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Example: When 0.250 mol of Metal X reacts fully with 500 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 HCl solution, the
temperature increases by 15.4OC. How much energy is released when 1.0 mol X reacts with HCl?
EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS
First calculate the heat evolved:
Exothermic reactions get hotter ­ the temperature increases.…read more

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MEASURING REACTION RATES
If a reaction produces gas, you can easily measure the reaction rate by collecting the gas (either in an
C7: CHEMICAL REACTIONS upturned measuring cylinder full of water or a gas syringe) and recording how much has been
collected each second.
RATES OF REACTION
The `speed' of a reaction is called its rate and is simply the
amount of new product formed every second.
For a chemical reaction to happen, the reacting particles need
to collide with enough energy.…read more

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