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· Reactivity Series
· Periodic Table
· Important Ions
· Bonding
· Ion Analysis
· Electrolysis
· Chemical Changes
· Hard water
· Scum Formation
· Water Softening
· Water Purification
· Carbon Cycle
· Haber Process
· Contact Process
· Organic Chemicals
· Alkanes
· Alkenes
· Fractional Distillation
· Alcohol…read more

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Reactivity Series
The following list shows how reactive different elements are in relation to each
other. This is a shortened list but contains most of the elements that you need
to know about.
Potassium (Very reactive)
Gold (Very un reactive)…read more

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(Elements highlighted in a red font are important elements which you should
really know about)…read more

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The table below lists some important ions
that you should really know about:
· Name of Ion Formula
· Hydroxide OH (-)
· Carbonate CO3 (-2)
· Sulphate SO4 (-2)
· Nitrate NO 3 (-)
· Ammonium NH4 (+)…read more

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Metallic Bonding This occurs in metals and is when electrons are given out from the metal
atoms to make a "sea" of free electrons in between all of the metal atoms. These free electrons
hold the metal as a mass together. This is known as being a giant structure.
· The free electrons present make it possible for electricity to be transferred easily because the
charge is carried by them. Because the metal atoms have lost electrons, they have a positive
· Ionic Bonding
· This occurs typically between a metal and a non-metal (from groups 1 + 2 and 6 + 7 on the
periodic table). The metal atom loses electrons which are taken by the non-metal. Therefore,
the metal ion produced has a positive charge and the non-metal ion is negatively charged.
· Sodium (metal - group 1) + Chlorine (non-metal - group 7) ----> Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
· In the example below, the sodium atom has lost an electron to form a positive ion. The chlorine
atom has gained the electron lost from the sodium to form a negative ion. The NaCl molecules
are arranged in a giant structure to form the substance more commonly known as Salt.
· Covalent Bonding
· This is when electrons are shared between atoms. Covalent bonding occurs between non-
metals due to the fact that all of the atoms need to gain electrons, so they have to share.
· Common substances that covalent bonding occurs in: Water (H2O), Hydrogen gas (H2), and
Methane (CH4)…read more

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