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Notes
· Reactivity Series
· Periodic Table
· Important Ions
· Bonding
· Ion Analysis
· Electrolysis
· Chemical Changes
· Hard water
· Scum Formation
· Water Softening
· Water Purification
· Carbon Cycle
· Haber Process
· Contact Process
· Organic Chemicals
· Alkanes
· Alkenes
· Fractional Distillation
· Alcohol…read more

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Reactivity Series
The following list shows how reactive different elements are in relation to each
other. This is a shortened list but contains most of the elements that you need
to know about.
Potassium (Very reactive)
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Carbon
Zinc
Iron
Tin
Lead
Hydrogen
Copper
Silver
Gold (Very un reactive)…read more

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(Elements highlighted in a red font are important elements which you should
really know about)…read more

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The table below lists some important ions
that you should really know about:
· Name of Ion Formula
· Hydroxide OH (-)
· Carbonate CO3 (-2)
· Sulphate SO4 (-2)
· Nitrate NO 3 (-)
· Ammonium NH4 (+)…read more

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Metallic Bonding This occurs in metals and is when electrons are given out from the metal
atoms to make a "sea" of free electrons in between all of the metal atoms. These free electrons
hold the metal as a mass together. This is known as being a giant structure.
· The free electrons present make it possible for electricity to be transferred easily because the
charge is carried by them. Because the metal atoms have lost electrons, they have a positive
charge.
· Ionic Bonding
· This occurs typically between a metal and a non-metal (from groups 1 + 2 and 6 + 7 on the
periodic table). The metal atom loses electrons which are taken by the non-metal. Therefore,
the metal ion produced has a positive charge and the non-metal ion is negatively charged.
· Sodium (metal - group 1) + Chlorine (non-metal - group 7) ----> Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
· In the example below, the sodium atom has lost an electron to form a positive ion. The chlorine
atom has gained the electron lost from the sodium to form a negative ion. The NaCl molecules
are arranged in a giant structure to form the substance more commonly known as Salt.
· Covalent Bonding
· This is when electrons are shared between atoms. Covalent bonding occurs between non-
metals due to the fact that all of the atoms need to gain electrons, so they have to share.
· Common substances that covalent bonding occurs in: Water (H2O), Hydrogen gas (H2), and
Methane (CH4)…read more

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