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C1 1.5 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
· Chemical equations show the reactants (what we start with) and the products (what we
end up with)
· We often use symbol equations to make life easier
CaCO3 CaO + CO2 ·This is balanced ­ same number of each type of atom
on both sides of the equation
Ca = 1 Ca = 1
C=1 C=1 ·We can check this by counting the number of each
O=3 O=3 type on either side
MAKING EQUATIONS BALANCE H2 + O2 H2O
H=2 H=2
O=2 O=1
Equations MUST balance
Add a 2 to the products side to make the oxygen
We can ONLY add BIG numbers to the front of balance
a substance
H2 + O2 2H2O
H=2 H=4
We can tell elements within a compound by BIG O=2 O=2
letters This has changed the number of hydrogen atoms
so we must now adjust the reactant side:
CaCO3 this is a compound made of 3 elements
(calcium, carbon and oxygen) 2H2 + O2 2H2O…read more

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C1 2.1 LIMESTONE & ITS USES
· Limestone is made mainly of Calcium Carbonate
· Calcium carbonate has the chemical formulae CaCO 3
· Some types of limestone (e.g. chalk) were formed from the remains of animals and plants
that live millions of years ago
USE IN BUILDING HEATING LIMESTONE
We use limestone in many buildings by cutting Breaking down a chemical by heating is
it into blocks. called THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
Other ways limestone is used:
Calcium Calcium + Carbon
Cement = powdered limestone + powdered clay Carbonate Oxide Dioxide
Concrete = Cement + Sand + Water
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
ROTARY LIME KILN
This is the furnace used to heat lots of calcium carbonate and turn it into calcium oxide
Calcium oxide is used in the building and agricultural industries…read more

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C1 2.2 REACTIONS OF CARBONATES
· Buildings made from limestone suffer from damage by acid rain
· This is because carbonates react with acid to form a salt, water and carbon dioxide
Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Water + Carbon
Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
TESTING FOR CO2 HEATING CARBONATES
· We use limewater to test for CO2 Metal carbonates decompose on heating
to form the metal oxide and carbon
· Limewater turns cloudy dioxide
· A precipitate (tiny solid particles) of calcium
carbonate forms causing the cloudiness! MgCO3 MgO + CO2…read more

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C1 2.3 THE LIMESTONE REACTION CYCLE
· Limestone is used widely as a building material
· We can also use it to make other materials for the construction industry
Calcium Carbonate + Heat Calcium Oxide
Calcium Oxide + Water Calcium Hydroxide (Limewater)
Step 4: Add CO2 Calcium Carbonate
Step 1: Add Heat
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O
Limestone
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Oxide
Solution
Step 2: Add a bit of water
Step 3: Add more water & filter CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2
Ca(OH0)2 + H2O Ca(OH)2 (aq)
Calcium Hydroxide…read more

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C1 2.4 CEMENT & CONCRETE
CEMENT
Made by heating limestone with clay in a kiln
MORTAR
Made by mixing cement and sand with water
CONCRETE
Made by mixing crushed rocks or stones (called aggregate), cement and sand with water
C1 2.5 LIMESTONE ISSUES
BENEFITS DRAWBACKS
· Provide jobs · Destroys habitats
· Lead to improved roads · Increased emissions
· Filled in to make fishing lakes or for · Noisy & Dusty
planting trees
· Dangerous areas for children
· Can be used as landfill sites when finished
· Busier roads
with
· Ugly looking…read more

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