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C 1.1. Atoms, elements and compounds:
· · All substances are made up of atoms.
· · Elements contain only one atom.
· · Compounds contain more than one atom.
· · An atom has a tiny nucleus in its centre, surrounded by electrons.…read more

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C 1.2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:
· · Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
· · Protons and electrons have equal and opposite electrical charges. Protons
are positively charged, and electrons
· are negatively charged.
· · Neutrons have no electrical charge. They are neutral.
· · Atomic number = number of protons (number of electrons.)
· · Mass number = number of protons and neutrons.
· · Atoms are arranged in the periodic table in order of their atomic number.…read more

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C 1.3. THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN
ATOMS:
· · The electrons in an atom are arranges in energy levels or shells.
· · Atoms with the same number of electrons in their outermost shell belong
in the same group of the periodic
· table.
· · The arrangement of electrons in the outermost shell of an elements atom
determines the way that element
· reacts.
· · The atoms of the unreactive noble gases (in group 0) all have very stable
arrangements of electrons.…read more

Slide 5

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C 1.3. THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN
ATOMS:
· · The electrons in an atom are arranges in energy levels or shells.
· · Atoms with the same number of electrons in their outermost shell belong
in the same group of the periodic
· table.
· · The arrangement of electrons in the outermost shell of an elements atom
determines the way that element
· reacts.
· · The atoms of the unreactive noble gases (in group 0) all have very stable
arrangements of electrons.…read more

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C 1.4. FORMING BONDS:
· · When atoms from different elements react together they make
compounds. The formula of a compound shows
· the number and type of atoms that have bonded together to make that
compound.
· · When metals react with non-metals, charged particles called ions are
formed.
· · Metal atoms form positively charged atoms. Non-metals form negatively
charged atoms. These oppositely
· charged ions attract each other in ionic bonding.
· · Atoms of non-metals bond to each other by sharing electrons. This is
called covalent bonding.…read more

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