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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




PROTEINS
Proteins make up 50% of all organic matter. They are long chains of amino acids:
DIPEPTIDE is formed when two amino acids join
POLYPEPTIDES are formed when more than two amino acids join together
PROTEINS are made of more than two polypeptides.

Proteins are complex and…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




ALPHA HELIX B-SHEET
In the alpha helix, the polypeptide chain is The polypeptide chain zigzags back
coiled tightly in the fashion of a spring. forward forming a sheet of ANTIPA
The "backbone" of the peptide forms the STRANDS held together by hydroge
inner part of the coil…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




GLOBULAR
Most proteins are globular- with compact ball shaped structures
Enzymes, receptors, membrane proteins, antibodies and plasma proteins are all globular proteins
(METABOLIC)
In globular proteins the hydrophobic R groups are turned inwards towards the centre of the structure
whilst the hydrophilic R groups are turned towards…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates make up about 10% of all organic matter of a cell. The functions of carbohydrates include
Energy source such as starch
Structural such as Cellulose
Substrate for respiration and immediate in respiration

Carbohydrates contain the elements C,H,O and some are part of larger molecules The…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




Joining two monosaccharides makes a disaccharide, joining many makes a polysaccharide such as starch,
glycogen and cellulose. The joining reaction is condensation forms a covalent bond known as a glycosidic
bond and water is removed. Hydrolysis reactions break down the bond and reinsert a water molecule.
Bonds…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




LIPIDS
Make up about 5% of organic matter. At room temperature they are
known as fats and as liquids they are oils. Lipids contain the elements C, H,
O and are insoluble in water. The functions of lipids include:
Insulation and protection
Some hormones are lipids- steroids…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




SATURATED OR UNSATURATED
Unsaturated is used when talking about unhealthy
foods. Too much saturated fat is a feature of poor
diet. The term means if "all possible bonds are made
with hydrogen the fatty acid is saturated" It is
saturated with hydrogen.

1) Unsaturated fatty acids have…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




Cholesterol:
Cholesterol is a type of lipid which isn't formed from glycerol and fatty acid tails. It's a small molecule that
is a 4 carbon based ring. It's found in biological membranes- it's small, narrow, and hydrophobic and fits
between the hydrocarbon tails for membrane strength and…

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




CHEMICAL TESTS

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BIOCHEMISTRY NOTES- 13/05/2012




Sometimes it is necessary to grind/ break up sample to carry out the chemical tests.

Comments

AlgGeek

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such an amazing set of notes. Thank you!!

Swallowtail

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A detailed and beautifully presented set of notes on all the key biochemicals and the essential  biochemical tests. The useful glossary at the end could be used to generate a set of flashcards in order to learn the key definitions and chemical structural formulae.

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