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AS Biology
F212.3 Biodiversity and evolution
Revision Notes


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Biodiversity & Evolution

(a) define the terms
A group of individual organisms which are very similar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry
and genetics, whose members are able to interbreed freely to produce fertile offspring
The place where an organism lives
The range of living organisms found…

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Sampling animals
Smaller animals can be trapped, their numbers observed, and the total population
estimated. Larger animals cannot be trapped. The must be carefully observed and their
numbers estimated.
Sweep netting
Sweeping a net through vegetation. Sweep for a set period of time in a number
of random areas. Produce…

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(a) define the terms
The process of sorting living things into groups based on similarities and differences
The study of evolutionary relationships between organisms
The study of the principles of classification

(b) explain the relationship between classification and phylogeny
Closely related species are placed in groups…

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Have fertilised eggs that develop into balls of cells called blastula
Usually able to move around

(e) outline the binomial system of nomenclature and the use of scientific (Latin) names for species
The binomial system is in Latin, which avoids any confusion caused by using common names, which
can be…

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(a) define the term variation
Differences within or between species

(b) discuss the fact that variation occurs within as well as between species
Variation occurs within a species eye colour, hair colour, height as well as between species, which
are obvious differences birds fly whereas dogs do not.


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These observations led him to the conclusions that
There is a struggle to survive
Better adapted individuals survive and pass on their characteristics
Over time, a number of changes may give rise to a new species
Because more young are produced than the habitat can sustain, there is competition for…

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Maintaining Biodiversity

(a) outline the reasons for the conservation of animal and plant species, with reference to economic,
ecological, ethical and aesthetic reasons
Growth of timber, food and fuel
Sources of new medicines
Regulation of atmosphere and climate
Photosynthesis removes CO2 and replaces it with O2

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in their current location. If the biodiversity of wild species are maintained, then farmers could
breed their agricultural plants with the similar wild plants that can grow in the new climate, and the
resulting offspring will have a high yield, but be able to grow in the warmer conditions.

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(e) discuss the role of botanic gardens in the ex situ conservation of rare plant species or plant species extinct
in the wild, with reference to seed banks
The Millennium Seed Bank in West Sussex is the largest ex situ conservation project of its kind. Seeds are kept
in cold…


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