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Biodiversity & Evolution
(a) define the terms
A group of individual organisms which are very similar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry
and genetics, whose members are able to interbreed freely to produce fertile offspring
The place where an organism lives
The range of living organisms found
(b) explain how biodiversity may be considered at different levels
The range of habitats in which different species live.…read more

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Sampling animals
Smaller animals can be trapped, their numbers observed, and the total population
estimated. Larger animals cannot be trapped. The must be carefully observed and their
numbers estimated.
Sweep netting
Sweeping a net through vegetation. Sweep for a set period of time in a number
of random areas. Produce a mean of the number of organisms caught.…read more

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(a) define the terms
The process of sorting living things into groups based on similarities and differences
The study of evolutionary relationships between organisms
The study of the principles of classification
(b) explain the relationship between classification and phylogeny
Closely related species are placed in groups together. By knowing the relationship between species,
one can put them in the correct group. Traditional classification is based on observable similarities and
differences.…read more

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Have fertilised eggs that develop into balls of cells called blastula
Usually able to move around
(e) outline the binomial system of nomenclature and the use of scientific (Latin) names for species
The binomial system is in Latin, which avoids any confusion caused by using common names, which
can be different in different countries.
The organism is given two names the genus and the species name, e.g. Homo sapiens Homo (capital letter) is
the genus and sapiens (lower case letter) is the species.…read more

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(a) define the term variation
Differences within or between species
(b) discuss the fact that variation occurs within as well as between species
Variation occurs within a species eye colour, hair colour, height as well as between species, which
are obvious differences birds fly whereas dogs do not.…read more

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These observations led him to the conclusions that
There is a struggle to survive
Better adapted individuals survive and pass on their characteristics
Over time, a number of changes may give rise to a new species
Because more young are produced than the habitat can sustain, there is competition for food and
resources. As all of the offspring are different, some of them are better adapted than others.…read more

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Maintaining Biodiversity
(a) outline the reasons for the conservation of animal and plant species, with reference to economic,
ecological, ethical and aesthetic reasons
Growth of timber, food and fuel
Sources of new medicines
Regulation of atmosphere and climate
Photosynthesis removes CO2 and replaces it with O2
Purification and retention of fresh water
Formation and fertilization of soil
Without soil, we couldn't grow crops
Detoxification and recycling of wastes
Crop pollination
All living organisms have the right to survive and live in…read more

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If the biodiversity of wild species are maintained, then farmers could
breed their agricultural plants with the similar wild plants that can grow in the new climate, and the
resulting offspring will have a high yield, but be able to grow in the warmer conditions.
Resistance to disease could also be bred into agricultural crops from their wild cousins to prevent
them being wiped out by new diseases.…read more

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The Millennium Seed Bank in West Sussex is the largest ex situ conservation project of its kind. Seeds are kept
in cold store and checked periodically to make sure they are viable. These can be used as a genetic resource for
future scientists looking for useful genes, and a store for plants that could become extinct with climate change
and habitat destruction. Plants may have a variety of uses in the future, e.g. land reclamation following habitat
degradation, or providing new medicines.…read more


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