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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 1


AQA(B) AS Module 1
Contents
Specification 2
Biological Molecules Chemical bonds 4
Carbohydrates 5
Lipids 7
Proteins 9
Biochemical Tests 15
Enzymes 16
Cells Eukaryotic Cells 22
Prokaryotic Cells 27
Cell Fractionation 29
Microscopy 30
The Cell Membrane 34
Movement across Cell…

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Module 1 Specification

Biochemistry The structure of prokaryotic cells to include cell wall,
Biological Molecules plasma membrane, capsule, circular DNA, flagella and
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and pro- plasmid.
teins are often polymers and are based on a small
number of…

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tem limited to the salivary glands and the pancreas. and transmission of a subsequent wave of electrical
The structure of an epithelial cell from the small intes- activity. Roles of th e sinoatrial node (SAN), a trioven-
tine as seen with an…

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Biological Molecules
Life on Earth evolved in the water, and all life still depends on water. At least 80% of the mass of
living organisms is water, and almost all the chemical reactions of life take place in aqueous solu-
tion. The…

Page 5

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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The group includes
monomers, dimers and polymers, as shown in this diagram:
Carbohydrates

Sugars

Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
(monomers) (dimers) (polymers)
e.g. glucose, fructose, e.g. sucrose, e.g. starch,
galactose maltose, lactose cellulose, glycogen…

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Disaccharides
Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a glycosidic bond
(C­O­C). The reaction involves the formation of a molecule of water (H2 O):

O O O O

H2O
HO OH HO OH HO O OH


glycosidic bond



This…

Page 7

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Lipids
Lipids are a mixed group of hydrophobic compounds composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and sometime phosphorus (CHOP). The most common lipids are triglycerides and phos-
pholipids.


Triglycerides
Triglycerides, or triacylglycerols, are made of glycerol and fatty acids.
H H…

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· If the fatty acid chains in a triglyceride have no C=C double bonds, then
H H H H
they are called saturated fatty acids (i.e. saturated with hydrogen).
C C C C
Triglycerides with saturated fatty acids have a high melting…

Page 9

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Proteins
Proteins are the most complex and most diverse group of biological compounds. They have an
astonishing range of different functions, as this list shows.


structure e.g. collagen (bone, cartilage, tendon), keratin (hair), actin (muscle)
enzymes e.g. amylase, pepsin, catalase, etc (>10,000…

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There are 20 different R groups, and so 20 different amino acids. Since each R group is slightly dif-
ferent, each amino acid has different properties, and this in turn means that proteins can have a
wide range of properties. The table…

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