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Revision Notes for Biochemistry
Definitions
Metabolism ­ All of the chemical reactions that happen in an organism.
Monomer ­ single small molecule, can be joined to make a polymer
Polymer ­ Many similar repeating subunits joined together
Covalent ­ bond formed from sharing electrons. Strong bond
Condensation ­ reaction links…

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Glycogen: Chains of 1-4 linked alpha glucose with branches joined by 1-6 links (more 1-6 links than
amylopectin, shorter chains). More compact, more ends to break glucose off ­ energy storage in
animals.



Carbohydrates ­ Polymers: Structural
Cellulose: beta glucose joined 1-4 glycosidic bonds. Second glucose must be upside down…

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Primary structure ­ specific sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Order dictated by
order of bases in DNA.

Secondary structure ­ Folding of polypeptide chain into alpha helix or beta pleated sheet. Held
together by H bonds.

Tertiary Structure ­ Folds again to form 3D structure. Held in…

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Cholesterol

4 carbon rings. Small, narrow, hydrophobic ­ sits between phospholipids to regulate
fluidity and strength of membrane.

Steroid hormones (testosterone, oestrogen) and vit D and bile made from
cholesterol.

XS cholesterol ­ sticks together in bile ­ gallstones, deposited in lining of blood vessels ­
atherosclerosis.

Water ­ Hydrogen…

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4. Carry out Benedict's test on unknown solution, filter it, and find out transmission, read off graph.



Nucleic Acids ­ Monmers
DNA Nucleotides ­ phosphate group, deoxyribose and organic nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine,
thymine or guanine)joined by covalent bonds.

RNA Nucleotides ­ phosphate, ribose, base (Adenine, cytosine, uracil or
guanine)…

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tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order, according to the bases on mRNA

amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.

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Revision Notes for Diseases and Immunity
Health = state of mental, physical and social wellbeing

Disease = Departure from good health

Parasite = An organism that lives in or on another living thing

Pathogen = Organisms that cause disease.

Infectious diseases can be cause by :

- bacteria: prokaryotes, reproduce…

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Cause: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Usually affects lungs

Transmission: droplet infection. Some people can become immune to it, others are vaccinated
against it. Transmission increased by: overcrowding, poor ventilation, poor health, poor diet. Can be
cured by 9 months of antibiotics.

Worldwide Importance: 2005 ­ 8.8 million new cases.…

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Macrophages may keep the antigens and display them on their surface to initiate the specific
immune response.

Specific Response
Lymphocytes ­ made in bone marrow. B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow, T migrate to
Thymus to mature. All have receptors on their surface.

1. Infection ­ the pathogen reproduces…

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- T cells, B cells and macrophages release interleukins (stimulate proliferation of B and T)

- Many cells release interferon (inhibit virus replication and stimulate T killer cells)

Vaccination
Can be whole live organisms, harmless version, dead pathogen, just antigens or toxins.

Immune system goes through immune response ­ makes…

Comments

Ellen Thompson

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amazing, thank you so much!

Bethany Cunningham

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Nice detail and easy to read-thank you!

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