ALL of the terminology glossary which I created

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  • Created by: amber
  • Created on: 22-05-11 20:02

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ADJACENCY PAIRS: two part exchanges following a predictable pattern & found in
conversation ­ how are you/fine thanks
ACRONYM: a word formed from the initial letters of other words ­ radar = radio detection
and ranging
ELLIPSIS: the omission of one or more grammatical elements from a sentence. Conveys
casual & informal tone ­ "you going to that party?"/"Might be" = the verb `are' and pronoun
`I' missed out
DIALECT: the distinctive grammar & vocabulary associated with a regional or social use of
DECLARATIVE SENTENCE: a sentence that makes a statement. States a fact or
argument & idea without requiring an answer or action from the reader ­ `Scattered
throughout the country are Roman remains'
FILLERS: sounds for thinking time to create a pause or to hold a turn in a conversation ­
`Er' `Um' `Ah'
ANAPHORIC REFERNCE: a word or expression in a text that refers back to another part
of the text
COMPOUND SENTENCE: two or more simple sentences joined together by a
coordination conjunction (`and' `but' `so')
COMPLEX SENTENCE: contains a main clause & one ore more clauses of lesser
CATAPHORIC REFERENCE: a word or expression in a text that refers forward to
another part of the text
CONNOTATION: the associations that a word has
ADJECTIVE: a word used to describe a noun ­ "a voluptuous river"
ACCENT: the pronunciation of words
CONCRETE NOUNS: words for things that are visible & exist physically ­ "brick" "pub"
"bridge" ­ text 6
ABSTRACT NOUNS: names for emotions, qualities, ideas & feelings & do no exist
physically ­ "jealousy" "sadness" "intelligent" "love"
PROPER NOUNS: people & places ­ "Dan" "France" "Jack" ­ text 27
COMMON NOUNS (concrete nouns, abstract nouns, collective nouns): refer to types of
people, places & feelings. Classify things into types or general categories ­ "boy"
"countryside" "cities" ­ text 9

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CONTRACTION: words are combined to form a single shortened word ­ we've = we
have `don't' = do not
ABSOLUTE: base form of an adjective e.g.…read more

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EXPRESSIVE TALK: communicating feelings, ideas, emotions and opinions
REFERENTIAL TALK: giving information or talking about a particular topic
TRANSACTIONAL TALK: interchange between at least two people, purpose of
achieving a goal
INITIATING: starting up a new topic
CHALLENGING: not seeing eye to eye, arguing. Confronting the topic
REGISTER: a form of language appropriate to a particular situation
TENOR/TONE: social relationships being enacted. Politeness, degrees of formality &
relative status of participants
MODE: means adopted for communication e.g.…read more

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OVERLAP: two people speaking at the same time
SOCIOLECT: the variety of language that is typically used by the members of a particular
social group e.g. workingclass or upperclass
TABOO: forbidden, swearing
EXPLETIVE TABOO: swearing to express emotion, not directed towards others
ABUSIVE TABOO: swearing towards another person, to offend
HUMOROUS TABOO: swearing towards another person teasing
AUXILIARY TABOO: swearing attached to something other than a person e.g. its bloody
DENOTATION: literal meaning of a word as it appears in the dictionary e.g.…read more

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HEDGE: words or phrases which soften or weaken the force with which something is said ­
e.g. `perhaps' `maybe' `sort of' `possibly' `I think'
NONFLUENCY FEATURES: typical & normal characteristics of spoken language that
interrupt the `flow' of talk. E.g. hesitations, false starts, fillers, repetitions (although can be
used for emphasis), overlaps & interruptions
PRAGMATICS (spoken language): an approach to discourse analysis which focuses less
on structures & more on contexts & purposes of people talking to each other.…read more

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ALLITERATION: when two or more words begin with same sound
RHETORICAL QUESTION: question that doesn't need an answer
ONOMATOPOEIA: when sound of a word echoes its meaning e.g. `buzz' `splash' `pop'
EUPHEMISM: Some subjects are considered personal, sensitive or taboo in English. For
this reason, people avoid mentioning them by name and instead use a "euphemism" or
humorous expression to refer to them. E.g. refer to death = `passed away' or the humorous
expression = `six feet under'.…read more

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SYNONYM: a word similar in meaning to another word
TOPIC LOOP: occurs when a conversation returns to an earlier topic
TOPIC SHIFTER: an utterance that moves a conversation on to another topic
ARCHAIC: old fashioned
DEFINITE ARTICLE: `the' ­ noun is a particular one
INDEFINITE ARTICLE: `a' or `an' ­ noun isn't a particular one
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: whenever you describe something and comparing it with
something else, words are used in other than their literal sense: metaphor, simile,
personification, imagery & symbolism
IRONY: when one…read more

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MINOR SENTENCE: A minor is a sentence without a subject and/or verb.
TENSE: Tense refers to the way the time of an action can be directly indicated in a verb by
changing its form (i.e. morphologically). English only has two verb tenses present tense 'I
leave.' and past tense, 'I left.'. However, we have many other ways of creating the idea of
tense by using auxiliary verbs or other structures that indicate the time of an action.…read more


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