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ADJACENCY PAIRS: two part exchanges following a predictable pattern & found in
conversation ­ how are you/fine thanks

ACRONYM: a word formed from the initial letters of other words ­ radar = radio detection
and ranging

ELLIPSIS: the omission of one or more grammatical elements from a sentence. Conveys
casual…

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CONTRACTION: words are combined to form a single shortened word ­ we've = we
have `don't' = do not

ABSOLUTE: base form of an adjective e.g. `fast' `loud' `cold'

COMPARATIVE: an adjective that makes a comparison, usually ending in er ­ `faster'
`louder' `colder'

SUPERLATIVE: an adjective indicating the highest…

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EXPRESSIVE TALK: communicating feelings, ideas, emotions and opinions

REFERENTIAL TALK: giving information or talking about a particular topic

TRANSACTIONAL TALK: interchange between at least two people, purpose of
achieving a goal

INITIATING: starting up a new topic

CHALLENGING: not seeing eye to eye, arguing. Confronting the topic

REGISTER: a form…

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OVERLAP: two people speaking at the same time

SOCIOLECT: the variety of language that is typically used by the members of a particular
social group e.g. workingclass or upperclass

TABOO: forbidden, swearing

EXPLETIVE TABOO: swearing to express emotion, not directed towards others

ABUSIVE TABOO: swearing towards another person, to offend…

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HEDGE: words or phrases which soften or weaken the force with which something is said ­
e.g. `perhaps' `maybe' `sort of' `possibly' `I think'

NONFLUENCY FEATURES: typical & normal characteristics of spoken language that
interrupt the `flow' of talk. E.g. hesitations, false starts, fillers, repetitions (although can be
used for…

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ALLITERATION: when two or more words begin with same sound

RHETORICAL QUESTION: question that doesn't need an answer

ONOMATOPOEIA: when sound of a word echoes its meaning e.g. `buzz' `splash' `pop'

EUPHEMISM: Some subjects are considered personal, sensitive or taboo in English. For
this reason, people avoid mentioning them by…

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SYNONYM: a word similar in meaning to another word

TOPIC LOOP: occurs when a conversation returns to an earlier topic

TOPIC SHIFTER: an utterance that moves a conversation on to another topic

ARCHAIC: old fashioned

DEFINITE ARTICLE: `the' ­ noun is a particular one

INDEFINITE ARTICLE: `a' or `an' ­…

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MINOR SENTENCE: A minor is a sentence without a subject and/or verb.

TENSE: Tense refers to the way the time of an action can be directly indicated in a verb by
changing its form (i.e. morphologically). English only has two verb tenses present tense 'I
leave.' and past tense, 'I…

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