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AS Language Glossary

General Terms
Mode: Medium of communication e.g. speech or writing

Prototype: A `best fit' example of a particular category

Sub-mode: A sub-division of mode e.g. poetry, prose, monologue, conversation, drama

Genre: The type or category of text e.g. comedy, horror, tragedy

Type: A form of text e.g.…

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Pejoration: To reduce a word to a lower/ less respectable meaning e.g. bitch

Narrowing: To restrict the meaning of a word e.g. accident

Broadening: To widen the meaning of a word e.g. call

Borrowing: The process by which a word is absorbed into another language e.g. cuisine

Blending: A word…

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Reflexive Myself, himself, themselves
Demonstrati Those, this, these, that
Relative Who, whom, which

Types of Function Examples
Proper Refers to names of people or places Paris, London
Abstract Refers to states, feelings and concepts without a Pain, happiness
physical existence
Concrete Refers to objects that have a physical…

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Euphemism: A socially acceptable word or phrase to avoid talking about something potentially
Dysphemism: A harsh, `to-the-point' and perhaps taboo term, sometimes used for a dark
humorous effect

Antonym: Words with opposite semantic value

Complementary: Truly opposite antonyms e.g. true-false, man-woman
Gradable: Antonyms that are not exactly opposite but…

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Grammar and Syntax
Morphology: The study of the formation of words from smaller units called morphemes

Morpheme: Smallest unit of meaning. They can be words in their own right or combine with other
morphemes to form lexical units

Linguistic rank scale: Morpheme Lexical Item Phrase Clause Sentence Utterance Text


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Semi-auxiliary: A combination of a primary auxiliary and another verb part and `to' e.g. "be supposed to"

Catenative verb: A verb that can attach to another to form a chain, often use `to' e.g. "She appeared to
run away," "He got to play for the rugby team," "You seemed to…

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Compound-complex sentence: A sentence containing at least two main clauses and at least one
subordinate clause e.g. "He kicked the ball and celebrated his goal even though
he was tired"

Utterance: A group of spoken words, roughly equivalent to the sentence in written terms

Sentence Mood Feature Example
Declarative Telling…

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Pragmatics: The study of how context affects meaning in speech and writing

Implied meaning/Subtext: Where a meaning beyond the literal one is being conveyed by the writer

Inferred meaning: The meaning the reader/listener takes from the text based on background knowledge
and context

Cooperative principle: The principle that suggests…

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Cultural model: Organisational structure based on shared and agreed criteria by groups of people within a

Convention: An agreed or shared feature

Parenthesis: Adding in additional information through the use of brackets

Discourse structure: The method that explains how texts are put together

Discourse Key Features Examples

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Adjacency pair: Two utterances by different speakers which have a natural and logical link, and complete an
idea together e.g. A: "Hello, how are you?" B: "Fine thank you!"

Turn-taking: The sharing or speaking roles, usually cooperatively

Initiation-response-feedback: Triadic structure in speech that allows the first speaker to feedback on…


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