AS Level English L + L - Framework Terminology

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Framework - Lexis Terminology

Abstract noun - Something that doesn't have physical qualities

Allusion - Referring to something indirectly or metaphorically

Archaisms - Older words/phrases that are no longer used

Asyndetic listing - Listing without co-ordinating conjunctions

Auxilary/modal verbs - Verb that procedes another e.g. I can go

Collective noun - Name which refers to a group of people, animals or things

Common/concrete noun - Name for objects in daily life

Conceit - Deliberately elaborate metaphor      Definite article - 'The'

Double negative - More than one negative is used

Dynamic verbs - Verb that expresses an action rather than a state

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Ellipsis - (...) Part of a sentence that has been left out

Euphemism - Word which replaces a term seen as taboo or unpleasant

Fillers - Words used when hesitating e.g. um, er

Hyperbole - Exaggeration which heightens feeling and intensity

Indefinite article - 'A'

Juxtaposition - Placing two or more things side by side

Lexical set - Group of words which are joined by similarities

Litotes - Deliberate understatement

Non-standard lexis - Non-standard English

Noun - A naming word

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Oxymoron - Contradictory words used in a phrase

Paralinguistics - Non-verbal communication (gestures, posture + facial expressions)

Parallelism - Patterning of pairs of sounds, words or structures to produce a sense of balance

Pathetic fallacy - Environment mirrors emotions

Phrase - Group of words which have no finite verb except for a verb phrase

Pronoun - Word which replaces a noun

Proper nouns - Name of a person, place etc. e.g. Daniel, Manchester, London

Repetition - Saying the same thing again and again

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Stative verbs - Verbs which express states of being or processes e.g. love

Superlatives - Word which emphasises extremes e.g. best, worst

Symbolism - Device which a word or phrase represents something else

Syndetic listing - Conjunctions are used to join clauses

Themes - Recurring ideas and images in a text

Tone - Style or voice the text is written in

Tripling - Listing of three items

Verbs - Words which express states, actions or processes

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Framework - Imagery Terminology

Adjective - Word which modifies a noun or pronoun

Adverb - Word which modifies verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions and prepositions

Alliteration - Repetition of the same sound in words

Compound adjective - Adjective made up of two words joined by a hyphen

Metaphor - Description that describes something AS something else e.g. It is an oven in here

Personification - Something that isn't human is given personal and human qualities e.g. the daffodils danced in the wind

 Simile - This is a device which compares something with another thing (using like or as) e.g. The trees are as big as skyscrapers

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Framework - Grammar + Structure Terminology

Active voice - Subject is the actor of a sentence e.g. The man eats the fish

Clause - Group of words usually with a finite verb that is structurally larger than a phrase

Comment clause - Commonly occurring phrase in speech like 'you know'

Complex sentence - Sentence made up of one main + one or more subordinate/dependent clauses

Compound sentence - Sentence made up of at least two main clauses joined together by a co-ordinating conjunction

Co-ordinating conjunction - Word which joins things together like 'and'

Declarative mood - Mood used to express a statement

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Dependent or subordinate clause - Group of words which add extra information to the independent main clause

End-focus - Change in structure of the sentence to place emphasis on a closing sentence element

Exclamatory mood - A mood which presents strong emotions

Foregrounding - Change in the structure of the sentence to put emphasis on an opening sentence element

Form - Structure and shape of a text

Imperative mood - Mood expressing a command

Independent main clause - Group of words which has the main meaning of the sentence

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Interrogative mood - Mood expressing a question

Mode of address - First, second or third person

Passive voice - Structure where the subject and object can change places to change the focus of a sentence e.g. The fish was eaten by the dog

Preposition - Word that shows the relationships between nouns or pronouns e.g. on

Simple sentence - Independent main clause

Subordinating conjunction - Conjunction used to introduce a subordinate clause like 'because'

Syntax inversion - Deliberate alteration of the structure of words within a sentence

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Tag question - Interrogative structure which is tagged onto the end of a sentence which expects a response e.g. isn't it

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Framework - Phonology Terminology

Accent - Distinctive pronounciations that highlight regional or social identity

Aspirants - Sounds that signify breath like 'h'

Assonance - Repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds

Bilabials - Sounds that are made with both lips like 'm' and 'b'

Dialogue - Language interaction     Elision - Taking out sounds in connected speech

Fricatives - Sounds where air escapes like 'f' 'v'

Intonation - Quality or tone of the voice in speech

Nasals - Consonants created with an open nasal passage like 'm' and 'n'

Plosives - Sounds that release a burst of air like 'p', 'b' and 't'

Prosodic features - Use of pitch, volume, pace and rhythm to draw attention to key elements of spoken language

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Received pronounciation (RP) - English accent which has a high social status and isn't linked to a particular region

Sibilants - Consonant sounds that sound like you are hissing e.g. 's' and 'z'

Transcription - Written record of spoken language that makes use of symbols and markings to show the distinctive nature of speech

Turn-taking - Organisation of speakers' contributions to a conversation

Vocatives - Words used to name or refer to a person when talking to them

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