The extent of change in Russia 1881 - 1894
Alexander III and His Policies
- Alexander II introduced important reforms such as the emancipation of the serfs in 1861.
- Following assaniation in 1881, Alexander III hated many reforms.
- Alex III influenced by conservative Pobedonostsev.
- Argued reforms encouraged radicalism and threatened Tsarist system.
- Policy of repression launched in 1881.
- This included:
- Reforming ministers being forced to resign.
- Manifesto produced emphasising Tsar's power.
- Government controlled courts.
- Power of the Okhrana.
Failed Assaniation of Alex III
- Repression increased after failed assasination in 1887.
- 1889 'Land Captains' introduced to help rule Russia.
- 1890 became memebers of Zemstva.
- Central gov. control over education also introduced.
The extent of Change in Russia 1881 - 1894 cont.
Extending Power Over The Empire
- Alex III strengthened Russification.
- 1885 Russian became language of empire and all other languages were banned in schools.
- Jews heavily persecuted and experienced viscious programs.
Economic Modernisation of Russia
- Alexander III new that Russia needed a modern economy to keep up with Britain.
- Nikolai Bunge = Finance Minister 1881.
- 1882 reduced tax paid by peasants.
- 1887 Ivan Vyshnegradsky = Finance Minister.
- Ecouraged foregin countries to loan to Russia.
- However, severe famine between 1891-1892, where 1.5 to 2 million people died.
Witte's Policies, 1892 - 1903
Russian Economy and Society
- The emancipation of the serfs did not resolve the problems of agricultural production.
- Some developments occured in 1880s
- Tarrifs to encourage domestic buying of Russian goods, 1891.
- Russia still behind Europe.
Impact of Sergi Witte and the 'Great Spurt', 1892 - 1903
- Key aim to strengthen economy and maintatin Russian possinion as a Great Power.
- Russia suffered with lack of foregin investment, large businesses and workers for factories in late 19th Century.
- Following policies used to modernise economy:
- Government more active in control of economy.
- Greater emphasis on coal iron and steel.
- Loans from foreign countries.
- The Trans-Siberian Railway was built to exploit Siberia economically.
Witte's Policies, 1892 - 1903
Successes and Failures of Witte's policies
- Increased coal and iron production.
- 144 million roubles in foregin investment between 1897 and 1900
- 1903 = Trans-Siberian railway almost complete.
- Cities grew rapidly.
- Living conditions in cities for working classes were very poor.
- Strikes became more common in Ruissia cities.
- Russia was more in debt than any other European country at the time.
- 1913 = industry contributed only 20% of national income and only 18% of people lived in cities.
- Increased taxes on peasants created widedspresad anger.
Nicholas II's Regime and it's effect
- Came to power in 1894 and had been tutored by Pobedonostsev.
- He had little knowledge on the poverty and relied on a small number of advisers.
The Tsar's Beleifs
- Beleived in maintating Tsarist system and did not support political reform.
- He had the divine right to rule the Russian Empire.
The Tsar's Dictatorship
- 1894 - 1905 refused to allow parliament to be established.
- Relied on Okhrana to maintain security in Russia.
- Willing to use army and elite forces such as Cossaks to supress strikes or protests.
- Supported the establishment of the 'Black Hundreds'.
- Encouraged programs and supported censorship.
Nicholas II's Regime and it's effect cont.
Weaknesses in the Political System
- The system of Government was not efficient.
- Decisions were slow and took a longtime to be implemented.
- The Tsar was indecisive and easily influenced.
- Widespread bribery and corruption.
Impact of Tsars Rule
- Reluctancy against reform led to increasing frustration in Russia.
- Many Russians supported political opposition groups.
Nicholas II and the Tsarina
- Tsarina could influence Tsar and encouraged him to remain at home instead of gov. affairs.
- She was disliked as she was German.
Nicholas II and the Russian Orthodox Church
- The church spread the message in the country that the Tsar was chosen by God to rule.