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Working class compared to Middle Class children with the same IQ, working-class children are:
Less likely to be found in nursery schools
o More likely to be in low sets and streams in secondary school
o More likely to underachieve at GCSE and A Level
S.…read more

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Less likely to go to university
o More likely to leave school early
o More likely to be excluded and suspended
Suggests that working class children have lower innate intelligence than middle class
children.…read more

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BERNSTEIN: two types of speech code that differ between classes. These
differences in speech code give the m/c an advantage over w/c pupils because at
school, elaborated code is used by teachers, textbooks and exams.
Restricted code: typically used by the w/c. Limited vocabulary, and is based on the use of
short, grammatically unfinished and simple sentences. It is context-bound.
Elaborated code: typically used by the m/c. wider vocabulary and is based on the use of
longer, more complex sentences.…read more

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Compensatory education:
A policy designed to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to
schools and communities in deprives areas
Compensatory education programmes attempt to intervene early in the socialisation process
to compensate children for the deprivation they experience at home.
Operation Head Start: Multibillion dollar scheme of pre-school education in poor areas
introduces in the 1960s in the US. Its aim was `planned enrichment' of the deprived child's
environment to develop learning skills and instil achievement motivation.…read more

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Material Deprivation
Material deprivation refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate
housing and income.
Poverty is closely linked to education under-achievement:
in 2006, only 33% of children on free school meals gained 5+ A*-C at GCSE (vs. 61% not
FLAHERTY: money problems in the family were a significant factor in younger children's
non-attendance at school
Nearly 90% of `failing' schools are located in deprived areas
Close link between poverty and social class.…read more

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Lack of funds also means that children from low-income families also need to work ­
RIDGE: found that children in poverty take on jobs such as baby sitting and this often has a
negative impact on their school work.…read more

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Cultural Capital
The knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class
Cultural and material factors contribute to educational achievement and are interrelated ­
uses concept of `capital' to explain why the m/c are more successful...…read more

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Uses Bourdieu's ideas to explain findings: found that differences in economic and
cultural capital lead to class differences in how far parents can exercise choice in
secondary school
m/c families with cultural and economic capital are better placed to take advantage
of the available opportunities for a good education
Identifies three main types of parents: privileged-skilled choosers,
disconnected-local choosers and semi-skilled choose
S.…read more

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To label someone meant to attach a meaning or definition to them, often based on
stereotyped assumptions about them
BECKER: carried out an interactionist study of labelling based on interviews in 60 Chicago
high school teachers - found that they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted the
image of an `ideal pupil'.…read more


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