Sociology revision


externalf actors that affect achievement 

  • cultural deprivation
  • material depriavtion
  • cultural capital

Culutral deprivation


  • the acquistion of the basic 'cultural equipment' needed for educational success happens through primary socialisation in the family
  • this includes basic values, attitudes, language and skills
  • w/c families fail to socialise their chidlren adequetly so they grow up 'culutrally deprived' and lack the culutral equipment needed to do well in school 
  • the three main aspects of cultural deprivation are: language, parents eductaion and w/c subculture
  • the centre for longiturdanl studies (2007) found that by the age of three, w/c chidlren are up to one year behind


  • the way in which parents communciate with their chidlren affects their cognitive development and their ability to succeed at school, w/c children grow up incabaple of abstract thinking and unable to use lanmguage to explain, comapre of enquire. As a result, they are unable to take advantages of the oppurtuntiies thats chool has to offer
  • Hubbs-tait et al (2002) found that m/c parents were more likely use language that challenges their children to evaluate their own understanding and abilities ( such as what do you think?) 
  • by contrast, w/c families are more likely to use language that only requires their children to make simple stsatements, such as what is this colour called? 
  • Basil bernstein (1975) identifies the restricted code and the elaborated code. The restricted code is used by the w/c, it has a limited vocabulary, is grammatcially simple and context-bound. In comaprison, the m/c use elaborated code which is the opposite.
  • the elaborated code is seen as the 'correct' way of communicating and is used by teachers, in textbooks and in exams. early socialisation into elaborated code gives m/c chidlren an advantage

Parents eductaion

  • Douglas (1964) found that w/c aprents palced less value on education. as aresult, they took less interest, were less ambitious for their chidlren and had less communciation with their childs school, leading to lower levels of ambiton and achievment
  • leon fenisten (2008) argues that parents eductaion si the most important factor that effects achievment. as m/c aprents are better eductaed they are able to give their chidlren numerous advnatages by how they socialise them. this includes their parenting style andability to establish good relationships with teachers. Bernstein and young (1967) also argue that m/c parents have a hgiher income. they found that m/c mothers are mor eliekly to buy edcuational toys

working class subculure

  • w/c's lack of aprental interest in their chidlrens eductaion reflects the subculutral values of the w/c
  • w/c children internalise the nvb's of their subculutre through the socialisation process
  • Barry Sugarman (1970) argues that w/c s/c has four key features that act as a barrier to eductaional acievment. this includes fatalism ( belief that status is determined and cannot be changed), collectivism ( emphasises group achievment more than individual achievment), immediate gratification ( seeking immediate pleasure rather than making sacrifices for future gain) and present-time orientation ( no long term goals)


  • Nell Keddie (1973) calls culutral deprivation a 'myth' and…


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