AQA AS Sociology Revision Quiz ANSWERS (Families and Households)

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1. According to Parsons, which role do men perform?
The instrumental role ­ geared towards achieving success so that he can provide for the family financially
2. What type of conjugal roles do symmetrical families involve?
Joint conjugal roles ­ where the couples share tasks such as housework and childcare and spend their leisure
time together
3. Gershuny believes that men are more likely to do labour if their wives are in what type of employment? (full time, part
time or not working)
Full-time ­ wives who worked full-time did 73% of the housework. The longer the wife had been in paid work,
the more her husband was likely to do
4. Give two examples of the commercialisation of housework
Any two from: freezers, microwave ovens, `ready meals'
5. What do Ferri and Smith say about the impact of increased women in employment and the domestic division of Labour
It has had little impact of the division of labour ­ in a sample of over 1500, the father took the main
responsibility for childcare in fewer than 4% of families
6. Who said that women now take on a `triple shift' and what is it?
Duncombe and Marsden ­ women not only have to do housework and paid work, but also emotion work
7. Identify two reasons why a `gender division of labour' continues to exist among many couples
Any two from: expectations of the members within the couple such as the expressive and breadwinner role,
media influencing the roles of members in the family, time available to members of the family (employment and
leisure time)
8. What is meant by `gender scripts'?
The expectations or norms that set out the different gender roles men and women in heterosexual couples are
expected to play
9. Name one sociologist whose findings indicate that family resources are not shared equally
Any one from: Barrett, McIntosh, Kempson or Graham
10. What reason do Pahl and Voger give for men having more power to influence family decision-making?
Economic factors ­ they focus on how each partner's contribution to family income affects decision making
within the family
11. Suggest two reasons why domestic violence us not simply the behaviour of a few psychologically disturbed individuals
Any two from: According to the BCS 2007 ­ DV accounts for almost a sixth of all violent crime, Mirrlees-Black:
survey of 16k estimates that there are 6.6million domestic assaults a year, DV follows particular social patterns
12. Suggest two reasons why there is a `dark figure' on domestic violence?
Any two from: People are reluctant to report it, police don't want to record investigate and prosecute, doesn't
always make it to court ­ complaints are withdrawn, hard to prove
13. Indentify and explain two explanations of abuse
Any two from: The feminist explanation: (May mention Firestone&Millett) all societies have been founded on
patriarch and therefore men dominate through domestic violence or the threat of it. Wilkinson: sees domestic
violence as the result of stress on family members caused by social inequality
14. How does Elliot criticise the radical feminist explanation for abuse?
Elliot rejects the feminist claim that all men benefit from violence against women ­ not all men are aggressive
and most are opposed to domestic violence
15. What kind of theory does Parton give for the explanation of child abuse?
Parton uses a structural theory ­ structural circumstances in which people live may put great strain on
relationships, leading to abuse

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1. Explain what is meant by the `social construction of childhood'
Social construction of childhood means that childhood is created and defined by society. Therefore what
people mean by childhood and the position that children occupy in society is not fixed, but differs between
times, places and cultures
2.…read more

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The stable satisfaction of the sex drive, reproduction of the next generation, meeting its members economic
needs and socialisation of the young
2. How do Marxists criticise Murdock?
Marxists argue that the family serves the needs of capitalism, not those of family members or society as a
3. What are the two functions of the family according to Parsons?
The stabilisation of adult personalities (may mention `the warm bath' theory) and the primary socialisation of
the young
4.…read more

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In the short term: the fall in the number of children reduces the `burden of dependency' on the working
population. In the long term: fewer babies being born will mean fewer young adults and a smaller working
population, so the burden of dependency may begin to increase again
3.…read more

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Changing family patterns:
1. Name three reasons for the increase in divorce
Any three from: changes in law, declining stigma and changing attitudes, secularisation, rising expectations of
marriage, changes in the position of women
2. Define the 4 types of marital breakdown
Empty-shell marriage: where the couple continue to live under the same room although the love has
disappeared for the sake of children or economic reasons. Divorce: the legal ending of a marriage.…read more

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Family diversity and the life course:
1. What type of family does New Right see as the best `fit'?
The new right believe that the traditional patriarchal nuclear family is the best `fit'
2. What family does Chester argue is becoming more dominant in modern society? What does this family type include?
Chester argues that the `neo-conventional' family is becoming more dominant ­ dual earner family
3.…read more

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Families and social policy:
1. Name two things that the Russian social policy included after the revolution of 1917
Any two from: changed laws to make divorce easier to obtain, constitution guaranteed equality between the
sexes, women entered paid employment on vast scale, state began to provide workplace and other communal
2.…read more


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