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What is the Development Gap?
Development is the use of natural and human resources to achieve a higher standard of
living; therefore, as a quantity, it describes the level of economic growth and wealth of a
country. However, you can develop socially so as to improve your quality of life. As a result, a
country's level and speed of development can be affected by a number of things which
include environmental, economic, social and political factors.…read more

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This is the percentage of adults who can
Adult Literacy Rate read and write.
This is the number of babies born per 1000
Quality of Life Birth Rate of the population per year.
This is the number of people who die per
Death Rate 1000 of the population per year.
This is the number of children who die
Infant Mortality before their first birthday per year.…read more

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There are a number of issues with using a single development indicator. For example
GDP/capita averages the wealth of a few over many and doesn't take into account the fact
that you can live a very comfortable and happy subsistence lifestyle. Also, all single
development indicators only take into account either quality of life or standard of living not
both (although they are related to a certain extent).…read more

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Third World = Other Countries (e.g. HIPCs)
The problem with this is that it suggested that poorer people were lower class
citizens and less valued due to being in third place.
The North South Divide:
The Brandt Report was published in 1971 regarding the state of world development.
Using GNP, it divided the world into rich / industrialised countries in the North
(MEDCs) and the poorer mainly agricultural
economies in the south (LEDCs).…read more

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Political Factors
Wars and conflict can negatively affect development due to causing death and injury,
internal displacement and refugees, infrastructure damage, over-dependence on
foreign aid and international sanctions.
Mismanagement and corruption can negatively affect development due to lack of
investment, lack of human rights, lack of welfare, health problems, wrong decisions
causing food shortages and the rich politicians taking all the resources for
themselves.…read more

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War resulted in countries' looting the DRC of its resources and riches in addition to
the death of over 5m people from starvation and famine (45,000 per month). Also,
there has been lack of governmental / foreign industry investment, internally
displaced people (IDPs) / refugees, less tourism and infrastructure damage.
Case Study: Zimbabwe, Africa
Population of 12m with average age of just 18.3 years.
82% have access to safe water.
Life expectancy = 49 - 2011 data (61 in 1990).
HDI = 0.…read more

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Darfur Conflict (2003 - 2010?) North Vs. South (Civil War: 1955 - 1972 & 1983 -
Peace Agreements - 2006 & 2011. 2005)
Black African & Arab Tensions (racial). African South against Arab North.
300,000 dead - mostly from disease. Guerrilla warfare.
3 IDPs - most live in camps. 1.5m dead in two wars.
Ethnic Cleansing - 90% of targeted 4 million displaced people.
groups destroyed. Southern infrastructure destroyed.…read more

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Case Study: Guinea Worm in South Sudan, Africa
Worst rate of Guinea Worm infection worldwide with 1/3 of the world's cases.
o Sufferer soaks blister in water for pain relief.
o Blister bursts releasing larvae into water.
o Someone drinks the water containing the larvae.
o The larvae resist digestion and exit the digestive system through the small
intestinal wall.
o Larvae grow into worms (up to 3 feet long) and mate before moving around
the body, usually to the lower limbs.…read more


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