AQA GCSE Geography notes- The Development Gap

notes on the development gap with some examples and figures to put in answers

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: me
  • Created on: 19-03-12 19:12
Preview of AQA GCSE Geography notes- The Development Gap

First 350 words of the document:

Measures used to determine development
Gross National Product, a financial measure of all the goods and services produced by the
citizens of a country, wherever they live.
To make it comparable, it is put into US $, the most powerful currency.
Doesn't take population into account, so GNP per person is usually used.
There are numerous problems with GNP, as it is an average for the whole country so within
individual regions there will be huge differences e.g. Weybridge compared to Manchester.
GNP does not take into account goods and services produced in the informal sector e.g.
prostitution, illegal immigrants (20 million in America).
There is some corruption involving GNP with countries that increase it to make themselves
look richer (more powerful) or poorer (to qualify for aid) e.g. Nigeria makes itself richer to
appear more powerful and successful.
People aren't the same- GNP take an average of the population so there can be problems
e.g. OPEC (Oil + Petroleum Economic Community), their GNP is very high however the people
are very poor. This is because most of it is held by billionaire sheikhs.
GNP does not take into account standard of living, the government may not spend money on
schools etc., e.g. North Korea spends 60% of its budget on its military.
GNP is put into USD, this means that purchasing power is not comparable.
Gross Domestic Product- A measure of all the goods and services within the borders of a
Used more often as a results of globalisation.
Has the same problems as GNP
Purchasing Power Index
GNP per person updated to include how much things are worth in different places in the
Used to reflect what you can buy in a country.
Human Development Index
A composite measure calculated from 3 things: life expectancy, education level and standard
of living.
Life Expectancy

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The average number of years that a new-born child is likely to live.
An average- different part of the world have different life expectancies.
Gender problems- women outlive men usually by about 5 years.
Infant mortality rate
The number of child deaths under 1 year per 1000 per year.
Because the figure is so high in some countries it is often linked to birth rate.
Crude death rate
Number of deaths per 100 per year.
A measure of standard of living.
E.g.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

A vital but unevenly shared resource.
Only 3% of the world's water is fresh, most of which is locked up in ice sheets.
There is 10 million cubic kilometres of water in circulations, as precipitation refills rivers, lakes
and underground water streams.
This should be more than enough for the Earth's populations, but supplies are unevenly
distributed among and within countries.
Most water-rich countries are in the tropics and temperature regions where rainfall is high.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Diseases spread by dirty water can make people too weak to work or go to school, and kill
the most vulnerable, including young children and the elderly.
As much as 80% of all developing world disease is water related, claiming over 2 million lives
a year- 1 death every 15 seconds.
Trade and development
International Trade
This is when a country sells or exports its goods to another.
Trade in goods is called visible trade, whereas trade in services is called invisible trade.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

It is difficult for producers to plan ahead e.g. coffee bushes take several years to grow, and
farmers cannot suddenly change their crops if coffee prices fall.
Korea and Bangladesh
During the 1950s, South Korea's economy was mainly based on primary products, especially
farming, and manufacturing exports were almost zero.
In the 1960s, South Korea built up its manufacturing industries, helped massively by
investment from the USA.
Its industries were protected by an import law.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Tariffs= an import tax which charges producers to bring their products into a country (or
trade bloc). Reasons include checking for quality, health and safety grounds (check for
banned chemicals), to check that the products aren't carrying any insects or diseases and also
to check for drugs/smuggling goods/illegal immigrants, but tariffs are mainly charged to
protect companies within the charging country. There are no tariffs for countries which are all
in a trade bloc.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Windward Islanders are campaigning against the WTO.
Since 2000, Fairtrade has allowed the farmers on the Islands to get more money for their
In 2001, Sainsbury's only sold Fairtrade bananas which saved the Windward Islands, since
this, all of the main supermarkets sell Fairtrade bananas.
Closing the EU development gap
In 1957, Belgium, Germany, France, West Germany, Luxemburg and the Netherlands became
the first members of the European Economic Community- only 12 years earlier these
countries had been at war.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

These differences in quality of life and wealth help to explain why some people are
migrating within the EU from East to West.
The differences also make Eastern Europe attractive to companies looking for places to
invest in new business, as can be seen in how in 2007, the multinational Peugeot-Citroen
closed its Coventry car factory and relocated to Slovakia, where the wages of skilled
workers were ½ of those in Europe.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Climate change and growing populations will make many more people vulnerable to natural
hazards in future.
Reducing the rick of natural hazards, and helping people to adapt to the is a priority for
development in many countries.
Political conflicts can also have devastating impacts on development, as like natural hazards
they can often result in widespread deaths and injuries, large numbers of displaced people
and refugees and destruction of infrastructure, factories and farms.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

December 2003 two Earthquakes (both 6.5 on the Richter scale) killed 3 people in California
but 30,000 in Iran.
Adapting to climate change- Bangladesh
Most of Bangladesh is flat, and less than 10 metres above sea level. In a normal year, about
25% of the country is flooded in the monsoon season.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »