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Measures used to determine development


Gross National Product, a financial measure of all the goods and services produced by the
citizens of a country, wherever they live.
To make it comparable, it is put into US $, the most powerful currency.
Doesn't take population into account, so GNP…

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The average number of years that a new-born child is likely to live.
An average- different part of the world have different life expectancies.
Gender problems- women outlive men usually by about 5 years.

Infant mortality rate

The number of child deaths under 1 year per 1000 per year.

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A vital but unevenly shared resource.
Only 3% of the world's water is fresh, most of which is locked up in ice sheets.
There is 10 million cubic kilometres of water in circulations, as precipitation refills rivers, lakes
and underground water streams.
This should be more than enough for the…

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Diseases spread by dirty water can make people too weak to work or go to school, and kill
the most vulnerable, including young children and the elderly.
As much as 80% of all developing world disease is water related, claiming over 2 million lives
a year- 1 death every 15…

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It is difficult for producers to plan ahead e.g. coffee bushes take several years to grow, and
farmers cannot suddenly change their crops if coffee prices fall.

Korea and Bangladesh

During the 1950s, South Korea's economy was mainly based on primary products, especially
farming, and manufacturing exports were almost zero.…

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Tariffs= an import tax which charges producers to bring their products into a country (or
trade bloc). Reasons include checking for quality, health and safety grounds (check for
banned chemicals), to check that the products aren't carrying any insects or diseases and also
to check for drugs/smuggling goods/illegal immigrants, but…

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Windward Islanders are campaigning against the WTO.
Since 2000, Fairtrade has allowed the farmers on the Islands to get more money for their
In 2001, Sainsbury's only sold Fairtrade bananas which saved the Windward Islands, since
this, all of the main supermarkets sell Fairtrade bananas.

Closing the EU development…

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These differences in quality of life and wealth help to explain why some people are
migrating within the EU from East to West.
The differences also make Eastern Europe attractive to companies looking for places to
invest in new business, as can be seen in how in 2007, the multinational…

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Climate change and growing populations will make many more people vulnerable to natural
hazards in future.
Reducing the rick of natural hazards, and helping people to adapt to the is a priority for
development in many countries.
Political conflicts can also have devastating impacts on development, as like natural hazards…

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December 2003 two Earthquakes (both 6.5 on the Richter scale) killed 3 people in California
but 30,000 in Iran.

Adapting to climate change- Bangladesh

Most of Bangladesh is flat, and less than 10 metres above sea level. In a normal year, about
25% of the country is flooded in the…


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