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The Restless Earth

Tectonic Plates
The Earth's Surface is Separated into Tectonic Plates

1) At the centre of the Earth is a ball of solid iron and nickel called the core
2) Around the core is the mantle, which is semi-molten rock that moves very slowly.
3) The outer layer…

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Fold Mountains
Fold Mountains are formed when Plates Collide at Destructive Margins

1) When tectonic plates collide the sedimentary rocks that have built up between them are
folded and forced upwards to form mountains.
2) This means Fold Mountains are formed at destructive plate margins and places where there
used…

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3) Some volcanoes also form over parts of the mantle that are really hot (called hotspots).

There are Different types of Volcano

1) Composite volcanoes (e.g. Mount Fuji in Japan)
Made up of ash and lava that's erupted, cooled and hardened
into layers.
The lava is usually thick and flows…

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Flat (unlike normal volcanoes, which are mountains)
Cover a large area (much bigger than normal volcanoes)
Have a caldera (unlike normal volcanoes where there's just a crater at the top)

When a Supervolcano Erupts there will be Global Consequences

1) A supervolcanic eruption will throw out thousands of cubic kilometres…

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Earthquakes can be measured using two different scales:

1) The Richter scale:
This measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake called the
magnitude.
Magnitude is measured using a seismometer- a machine with an arm that moves
with the vibrations of the earth.
The Richter scale doesn't have an…

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