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What is an Urban Environment?
An urban environment is a town or city and therefore has a high population density and is a
built-up area at the centre of a region.…read more

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MEDCs urbanised before LEDCs and therefore are more urbanised overall, despite a slower
rate of urbanisation.
The urban land use of MEDC cities is shown by the Burgess Model:
How MEDC cities developed is shown by the MEDC Urban Transect:
LEDCs urbanised after MEDCs and therefore are more urbanised overall, despite a slower
rate of urbanisation.…read more

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How LEDC cities developed is shown by the LEDC Urban Transect:
MEDC Urban Issues…read more

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CBD Decline
At the centre of a CBD, its core contains the largest department stores and has historically
been the busiest part of the urban area. However, due to recent developments such as out
of town shopping centres in conjunction with the recent recession, many of these stores
have suffered and thus been outcompeted leading to some closing. As a result in some
CBD's you can find many empty and derelict buildings.…read more

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Case Study: Warrington Case Study: Birmingham
The redevelopment of the Birmingham relied heavily on manufacturing and due to
Golden Square Shopping Centre LEDC competition factories closed down. Also, offices
located towards the edge of the moved to smaller towns due to high levels of
CBD has attracted more congestion and an out of town shopping centre opened
shoppers and new shops, in 1989 resulting in a 5% decrease in the city's trade.…read more

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The Inner City Problem
In the past richer and higher class workers moved away from the inner cities and into the
suburbs / rural areas as transport improved and it became affordable. Therefore, the inner
city has been left with a poor and low class population and the lowest quality housing.…read more

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EZs were areas of land that
offered incentives such as tax breaks, financial assistance and eased planning
regulations so as to attract businesses.
Case Study: London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC)
This was one of the first UDCs, operating between 1981 - 1988 in conjunction with the Isle
of Dogs Enterprise Zone in Eastern London.…read more

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It aimed to tackle social, economic and environmental problems whereas earlier
solutions had only concentrated on improving buildings or the economy.
Case Study: Hulme City Challenge Partnership
This commenced in 1992 and received £37.8m from the government.…read more


Tybah Alhussainy

Really good but way too long for notes

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