AQA AS Food Vitamins Revision Cards

Everything you need to know about each of the vitamins on the specification including, other names for them, effects of deficiency/excess, sources, functions, whether they're fat or water soluble. Hope they're useful! Ratings and comments would be good so I can make any changes that would benefit everyone:) Beth x

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  • Created by: beth
  • Created on: 12-05-11 20:03
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Vitamin A
· Other names: Retinol or Carotene
· Functions: Helps form cells of skin and internal linings, aids bone growth, aids night
vision
· Main sources in diet: Retinol-liver, eggs, butter and fish oils. Carotene- yellow and
orange fruit and vegetables like tomatoes, mangoes, carrots and sweet potatoes,
dark green veg like spinach, broccoli
· Foods added to/ used in fortification: Low fat and skimmed milk- because it was
removed from the milk with the fat Margarine- to make its vitamin A content the
same as butter Ready to eat and instant-prepared cereals
· Water or fat soluble: Fat soluble
· Effect of a deficiency: Rough dry skin, slowed growth in children, night blindness,
internal linings can become dry and brittle
· Effect of an excess: Excess vitamin A interferes with the absorption of Vitamin K, a
fat-soluble vitamin necessary for blood clotting…read more

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Vitamin B1
· Other names: Thiamin
· Functions: Essential for the release of energy from carbohydrates, needed for
growth and normal functioning of the nervous system, maintains muscle tone
· Main sources in diet: Main sources of all B group vitamins are cereals (especially
wholegrain), wheat germ, yeast and yeast extract, meat, fish, eggs, dairy
products and pulses B1 in particular: Brazil nuts, peanuts
· Foods added to/ used in fortification: Foods made with white rice or white flour-
because it is lost during the refinement process
· Water or fat soluble: Water soluble
· Effect of a deficiency: Loss of appetite, loss of muscle tone, mental confusion,
beriberi ( a nervous system ailment)
· Effect of an excess: An excess of B1 has not been linked to any adverse health
effects and excess of the water-soluble vitamin is excreted.…read more

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Vitamin B3
· Other names: Niacin
· Functions: Involved in the use of (metabolism)of proteins, fatty acids and
carbohydrates, therefore has an effect on growth rate, essential for healthy skin
and nerves
· Main sources in diet: ain sources of all B group vitamins are cereals (especially
wholegrain), wheat germ, yeast and yeast extract, meat, fish, eggs, dairy
products and pulses B3 in particular: peanuts, dried peaches, dried apricots
· Foods added to/ used in fortification: Many breads and cereals
· Water or fat soluble: Water Soluble
· Effect of a deficiency: Dermatitis, diarrhoea, inflammation of mucus membranes,
pellagra (a vitamin deficiency disease)
· Effect of an excess: Flushing of the skin (due to dilating blood vessels), itching,
headaches, cramps, nausea and skin eruptions.…read more

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Folic Acid
· Other names: none
· Functions: Essential for the formation of red blood cells
· Main sources in diet: Main sources of all B group vitamins are cereals (especially
wholegrain), wheat germ, yeast and yeast extract, meat, fish, eggs, dairy
products and pulses Folic acid in particular: dark green vegetables (especially
Brussels sprouts), potatoes
· Foods added to/ used in fortification: Breads, pastas, rice, and ready-to-eat-
cereals
· Water or fat soluble: Water soluble
· Effect of a deficiency: Mild deficiency- tiredness, Serious deficiency- anaemia
· Effect of an excess: Produce convulsions, interfere with the anticonvulsant
medication used by epileptics, and disrupt zinc absorption…read more

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Vitamin B12
· Other names: Cobalamin
· Functions: Essential for the formation of red blood cells, essential for nervous
system
· Main sources in diet: Main sources of all B group vitamins are cereals (especially
wholegrain), wheat germ, yeast and yeast extract, meat, fish, eggs, dairy
products and pulses B12 in particular: liver, meat, eggs, milk, cheese. Note: there
is no Vitamin B12 in vegetable or cereal foods
· Foods added to/ used in fortification: Breakfast cereals
· Water or fat soluble: Water soluble
· Effect of a deficiency: Pernicious anaemia- where the body is unable to absorb
enough vitamin B12 into the body from the gastro-intestinal tract
· Effect of an excess: Harmless as far as research has proved…read more

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