Vitamin A (Retinol)
Sources: eggs, oily fish, liver, butter, cheese and full fat milk. margerine has to be fortified by law
Functions: aids vision, helps immune system and maintains mucous membranes
Defficiency: nightblindness, weakened immune system so more prone to infection
Excess: toxic in large quantities, pregnant women should avoid as it can cause harm to developing baby
Vitamin A (B-carotene)
Sources: carrots, sweet potato, apricots, pumkin, spinach and broccoli.
Functions: reduces risk of cancer and heart disease because its a powerfull antioxdant
Defficiency: night blindness, weakened immune system
Excess: toxic in large quantities
sources: citrus fruit, strawberries, onions, new potatoes, green peppers, brocolli, sprouts, kale
functions: helps the immune system, helps with the formation of red blood cells (helps absorb iron), needed for growth (helps produce callogen) and needed for repair of body tissues
Defficiency: wounds take longer to heal, skurvy, pronge to infection, slower metabolic rate and loss of appitite
Excess: stomach cramps and diarrhoea
Storage: avoid bruised or damaged fruit, store in cool dark place, ideally harvested ripe and eaten shortly afterwards
preperation: cook potatoes in skin, avoid fine chopping, slicing and dicing, use a sharp knife, pasturisation and drying reduces vitamin C, Blanching prevents enzyme activity.
cooking: avoid cooking and eat raw, avoid soaking in cold water, place in minimum amount of boiling water, cook for minimum time, serve immediately
sources: sunlight, dairy products, liver, oily fish. margerine is fortified by law, many breakfast cereals are voluntarily fortified.
functions: develops and maintains bones and teeth (along with calcium and phosphorus), helps with the absorbtion of calcium, helps heal fractured bones and reduces the risk of osteoporosis and brittle bones in later life.
defficiency: rickets (children), osteomalcia (adults), increased risk of osteporosis, its most common in children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, elderly and people with coelic disease
excess: more calcium in the blood, heart and kidneys this toxic build up causes nausea, vomiting and loss of apitite
sources: eggs, shellfish, meat, poultry, liver and dairy products. many cereals are fortified
functions: used in metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for cell growth, involved in metabolism of folic acid, maintains immune system, needed for manufacture of red blood cells and supports the immune system
defficiency: prenicious anemia - tiredness, loss of memory, numbness and tingling in hands and feet, inflimation of nerves and mental deteriation
excess: extcreted in urine (unkown)
sources: spinach, sprouts, broccoli, green beans and potatoes. bread and flour are fortified.
functions: pregnant women need a good supply because it helps with the development of the spinal cord in the embryo, essential for formation of red blood cells, works with B12 in process of cell devision
defficiency: spina bifida in new born babies
excess: can mask vitamin B12 defficiency, rare- gastrointestinal problems and sleep disturbances
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
sources: lean meat (pork), milk, cheese, brown rice, nuts, spinach. fortified bread and cereals
functions: needed for energy release, transmission of nerve signals brain to spine, essential for normal growth
defficiency: beri-beri (nervous system), tiredness, headaches, nerve damage and confusion.
excess: rare- toxic, hyperthyrodism (headache, rapid puls)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
sources: poultry, lean meat, egg, milk, fish, green leafy veg, almonds. fortified bread and cereal.
function: is essential for releasing energy from food, vital for growth and development, involved in production of red blood cells and hormones, helps keep skin, eyes, the nervous system and mucous membranes healthy.
defficiency: skin disorders, dry and cracked lips, bloodshot eyes and poor growth (LEDC's)
excess: excrieted in urnie (unkown)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
sources: poultry, lean meat, pulses, potatoes, milk, eggs, broccoli and carrots. fortified flours.
functions: metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein to produce energy for body growth, maintains healthy skin, keeps digestive and nervous system working, producing hormones (insulin and oestrogen)
defficiency: pellagra- dementia, diarrhoea, dermatitis (red skin on neck, hands and feet)
excess: liver damage
sources: dairy products (except butter), broccoli, pulses, soya products (tofu), tinned fish (+bones), fortified white and brown flour by law.(vitamin D aids absorption)
function: develops and maintains healthy bones and teeth, needed for muslce contraction, nerve fucntion, maintaining regular heart beat, blood clotting and enzyme activity.
defficiency: rickets (children), ostemalcia, osteporosis, musle aches and pains
excess: calcium deposits (hypercalcemia)
sources: milk, bread and meat
function: develops and maintains healthy bones and teeth, energy release from cells.
excess: reduces absorbtion of calcium - twitching in hands and feet
Haem iron (animal sources) - meat, offal, seafood and poultry (more easliy absorbed)
Non-haem iron (plant sources) - dried fruit, kidney beans, spinach and potatoes
breakfast cereals are fortified with iron
function: formation of haemaglobin in red blood cells, normal energy metabolism and normal function of the immune system
defficiency: anemia - tiredness, headache and dizziness
excess: toxic can cause heart and liver damage
(vitamin C aids the abosorption of iron)
sources: seafood, seaweed, meat, eggs and milk
function: normal neurological development, energy metabolism, converted to hormones in thyroid gland which control metabolic processes and the the rate of energy production.
defficiency: thyroid gland swells, children born where mother is deficients may be mentally retarded.
excess: toxic effect on thyroid gland
sources: red meat, shellfish, fish, cheese, pulses (harder to absorb when lots of fibre has being consumed)
functions: protein and carbohydrate metabolism, important part of enzymes, function of immune system and wound healing
defficiency: retarded physical and mental development, delayed puperty
Needed in small amounts
Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, D, A, Folic acid, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, chloride, iodine, zinc
Needed in large amounts
Protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils
fats and oils
visible fats - butter or on meat invisible fats - mayonaise and gravy the fat is an imulsion
sources: milk, cheese, cream, oily fish, chocolate, avacado, nuts and seeds
functions: source of energy, protects vital organs, insulates the body, essential part of cell membranes and source of fat solouble vitamins (A,D,E and K)
defficiency: lack of energy, a lack of protection for internal organs e.g kidneys, lack of insulation-hyperthermia.
excess: obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabities, high blood pressure
saturated: 'bad' fat, which raises blood cholestrel (LDL)
unsaturates: increases good blood cholestrel (HDL)
fat - soild at room temperature (saturated) oil - liquid at room temperature (unsaturated)
9kal per gram, no more than 11% from saturates fat, no more than 35% of energy from fat
animal sources: meat, fish, egg, cheese and milk
plant sources: pulses, cereals, nuts, seeds, quorn and tofu
functions: growth and repair of cells, secondary source of energy, forms hormones, enzymes and antibodies, only nutrient that prodvides the body with nitrogen
defficiency: degeneration (as worn out cells aren't replaced), slowing down of growth, weakened immune system, organs malfunction due to lack of hormones, marasmus and kwashiorkor.
excess: converted to energy which is stored as fat - obesity
refernce nutrient intake - amount of nutrient that is enough to ensure that the needs of nearly all the population are met, 97.5%
guidline daily amounts -