AS Food Technology Revision cards

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Vitamin A (Retinol)

Sources: eggs, oily fish, liver, butter, cheese and full fat milk. margerine has to be fortified by law

Functions: aids vision, helps immune system and maintains mucous membranes

Defficiency: nightblindness, weakened immune system so more prone to infection

Excess: toxic in large quantities, pregnant women should avoid as it can cause harm to developing baby

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Vitamin A (B-carotene)

Sources: carrots, sweet potato, apricots, pumkin, spinach and broccoli.

Functions: reduces risk of cancer and heart disease because its a powerfull antioxdant

Defficiency: night blindness, weakened immune system

Excess: toxic in large quantities

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Vitamin C

sources: citrus fruit, strawberries, onions, new potatoes, green peppers, brocolli, sprouts, kale

functions: helps the immune system, helps with the formation of red blood cells (helps absorb iron), needed for growth (helps produce callogen) and needed for repair of body tissues

Defficiency: wounds take longer to heal, skurvy, pronge to infection, slower metabolic rate and loss of appitite

Excess: stomach cramps and diarrhoea

Storage: avoid bruised or damaged fruit, store in cool dark place, ideally harvested ripe and eaten shortly afterwards

preperation: cook potatoes in skin, avoid fine chopping, slicing and dicing, use a sharp knife, pasturisation and drying reduces vitamin C, Blanching prevents enzyme activity.

cooking: avoid cooking and eat raw, avoid soaking in cold water, place in minimum amount of boiling water, cook for minimum time, serve immediately

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Vitamin D

sources: sunlight, dairy products, liver, oily fish. margerine is fortified by law, many breakfast cereals are voluntarily fortified.

functions: develops and maintains bones and teeth (along with calcium and phosphorus), helps with the absorbtion of calcium, helps heal fractured bones and reduces the risk of osteoporosis and brittle bones in later life.

defficiency: rickets (children), osteomalcia (adults), increased risk of osteporosis, its most common in children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, elderly and people with coelic disease

excess: more calcium in the blood, heart and kidneys this toxic build up causes nausea, vomiting and loss of apitite

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Vitamin B12

sources: eggs, shellfish, meat, poultry, liver and dairy products. many cereals are fortified

functions: used in metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for cell growth, involved in metabolism of folic acid, maintains immune system, needed for manufacture of red blood cells and supports the immune system

defficiency: prenicious anemia - tiredness, loss of memory, numbness and tingling in hands and feet, inflimation of nerves and mental deteriation

excess: extcreted in urine (unkown)

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Folic acid

sources: spinach, sprouts, broccoli, green beans and potatoes. bread and flour are fortified.

functions: pregnant women need a good supply because it helps with the development of the spinal cord in the embryo, essential for formation of red blood cells, works with B12 in process of cell devision

defficiency: spina bifida in new born babies

excess: can mask vitamin B12 defficiency, rare- gastrointestinal problems and sleep disturbances

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Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

sources: lean meat (pork), milk, cheese, brown rice, nuts, spinach. fortified bread and cereals

functions: needed for energy release, transmission of nerve signals brain to spine, essential for normal growth

defficiency: beri-beri (nervous system), tiredness, headaches, nerve damage and confusion.

excess: rare- toxic, hyperthyrodism (headache, rapid puls)

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Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

sources: poultry, lean meat, egg, milk, fish, green leafy veg, almonds. fortified bread and cereal.

function: is essential for releasing energy from food, vital for growth and development, involved in production of red blood cells and hormones, helps keep skin, eyes, the nervous system and mucous membranes healthy.

defficiency: skin disorders, dry and cracked lips, bloodshot eyes and poor growth (LEDC's)

excess: excrieted in urnie (unkown)

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Vitamin B3 (niacin)

sources: poultry, lean meat, pulses, potatoes, milk, eggs, broccoli and carrots. fortified flours.

functions: metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein to produce energy for body growth, maintains healthy skin, keeps digestive and nervous system working, producing hormones (insulin and oestrogen)

defficiency: pellagra- dementia, diarrhoea, dermatitis (red skin on neck, hands and feet)

excess: liver damage

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calcium

sources: dairy products (except butter), broccoli, pulses, soya products (tofu), tinned fish (+bones), fortified white and brown flour by law.(vitamin D aids absorption)

function: develops and maintains healthy bones and teeth, needed for muslce contraction, nerve fucntion, maintaining regular heart beat, blood clotting and enzyme activity.

defficiency: rickets (children), ostemalcia, osteporosis, musle aches and pains

excess: calcium deposits (hypercalcemia)

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Phosphorous

sources: milk, bread and meat

function: develops and maintains healthy bones and teeth, energy release from cells.

defficiency: rare

excess: reduces absorbtion of calcium - twitching in hands and feet

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Iron

Haem iron (animal sources) - meat, offal, seafood and poultry (more easliy absorbed)

Non-haem iron (plant sources) - dried fruit, kidney beans, spinach and potatoes

breakfast cereals are fortified with iron

function: formation of haemaglobin in red blood cells, normal energy metabolism and normal function of the immune system

defficiency: anemia - tiredness, headache and dizziness

excess: toxic can cause heart and liver damage

(vitamin C aids the abosorption of iron)

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Iodine

sources: seafood, seaweed, meat, eggs and milk

function: normal neurological development, energy metabolism, converted to hormones in thyroid gland which control metabolic processes and the the rate of energy production.

defficiency: thyroid gland swells, children born where mother is deficients may be mentally retarded.

excess: toxic effect on thyroid gland

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zinc

sources: red meat, shellfish, fish, cheese, pulses (harder to absorb when lots of fibre has being consumed)

functions: protein and carbohydrate metabolism, important part of enzymes, function of immune system and wound healing

defficiency: retarded physical and mental development, delayed puperty

excess: rare-toxic

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micronutrients

Needed in small amounts

Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, D, A, Folic acid, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, chloride, iodine, zinc

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macronutrients

Needed in large amounts

Protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils

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fats and oils

visible fats - butter or on meat           invisible fats -  mayonaise and gravy the fat is an imulsion

sources: milk, cheese, cream, oily fish, chocolate, avacado, nuts and seeds

functions: source of energy, protects vital organs, insulates the body, essential part of cell membranes and source of fat solouble vitamins (A,D,E and K)

defficiency: lack of energy, a lack of protection for internal organs e.g kidneys, lack of insulation-hyperthermia.

excess:  obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabities, high blood pressure

saturated: 'bad' fat, which raises blood cholestrel (LDL)

unsaturates: increases good blood cholestrel (HDL)

fat - soild at room temperature (saturated)              oil - liquid at room temperature (unsaturated)

9kal per gram, no more than 11% from saturates fat, no more than 35% of energy from fat

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protein

animal sources: meat, fish, egg, cheese and milk

plant sources: pulses, cereals, nuts, seeds, quorn and tofu

functions: growth and repair of cells, secondary source of energy, forms hormones, enzymes and antibodies, only nutrient that prodvides the body with nitrogen

defficiency: degeneration (as worn out cells aren't replaced), slowing down of growth, weakened immune system, organs malfunction due to lack of hormones, marasmus and kwashiorkor.

excess: converted to energy which is stored as fat - obesity

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RNI's, GDA's

refernce nutrient intake - amount of nutrient that is enough to ensure that the needs of nearly all the population are met, 97.5%

guidline daily amounts -

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