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Media influences
on Prosocial

Key Term Explanation + research Evaluation
Exposure to prosocial content analysis found two thirds of children's programmes contained at Woodard found that US programmes for pre-school children had high levels of prosocial content;
behaviour least one violent act. Greenburg looked at US children's programmes and…

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Four main behavioural effects of prosocial

Key term Explanation + research
Altruism (sharing, helping) studies usually involve explicit modelling of specific behaviours,
Poulos found that children who watch Lassie where a child
rescues a dog were more likely to help distressed puppies than
those who watched a neutral programme…

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Media influences on antisocial behaviour

Key term Explanation + evidence Evaluation
Observational learning and imitation children observe and imitate actions of media models, especially Bandura's research shows that children learn specific acts of
if they admire and identify with the model. TV may also inform aggression and increased aggressiveness through…

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themselves with the character and the more likely they are to boys who murdered James Bulger were said to have been
imitate the behaviour. Philips found a rise in the number of inspired by Child's Play but Cumberbatch reports no link was
murders after a heavyweight boxing contest, there was…

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after the televisions arrival. The measures used to assess
changes in prosocial and antisocial behaviour showed no
differences. Measures that did how differences were equally split
between positive and negative changes; five showed decreases in
prosocial behaviour (boys and girls), while two showed increases
(boys only). Two significant changes in…

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The Effects of
Video Games
and computers

Research technique Findings Evidence/ evaluation Further evaluation points

Experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated short-term increases in strength is that causal relationships between Why might there be an effect?
Studies-negative effects physiological arousal, hostile feelings and aggressive exposure to game play and subsequent aggressive…

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at Time 1 was significantly related to later physical aggression but researchers can observe patterns of behaviour and
aggression at Time 1 was not related to later video game play. study short-term and long term effects. Weakness is
Anderson studied 430 7-9 year olds twice in a year and found…

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Video games have been successfully used in the
treatment of post-traumatic stress. E.g. the virtual
Iraq computer game . researchers have also
discovered that playing the game Tetris minimises
the minds tendency to flash back to memories of
traumatic events.

Multiplayer games and Games which include multi players offer the…

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Distinguishing between many studies use violent and non-violent games that
violent and non violent are similar. One study used Missile Command
games although it involves no aggression towards people.
Many studies don't match violent and non-violent
games on factors such as frustration or excitement, so
violence may not be sole…

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The Bi-directional Model although playing violent video games may cause an increase in aggressive behaviour, it is just as likely that people who have
aggressive personality traits preferentially select violent video games

Desensitisation people who repeatedly play violent video games become desensitised to violence so are more likely to use…


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