AQA Research Methods Revision Guide

This was created using my teachers booklet and the AQA complete textbook. Please not that despite attempting to create an accurate revision guide, this does not include everything you need in your exam. And other materials will need to be used alongside this.

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A2 Psychology Revision
Research Methods

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Key Words
Empirical Data Data which can be physically seen.
Objectivity Data and research which is not subjective or bias.
Peer Review A thirdparty/external body within the same field, validates research.
Abstract A summary of a study/research.
Experiments Carrying out a test under controlled conditions/environments.
SelfReport Methods Participants are asked to report their own attitudes, abilities or feelings.
Pilot Studies A smallscale trail of a study to test all aspects of the design.…read more

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Science is a means of finding out the truth and facts about our world however in order for this to be
achieved various factors must first be demonstrated throughout the scientific research
Empiricism ­ Information is gained through direct observation or experiment.
Objectivity ­ Personal expectations should not affect what findings are recorded.
Replicability ­ Previously recorded methods and procedures are retested to see if the
outcome is the same.…read more

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Evaluation of Psychology Is A Science?
Strengths Limitations
In the nineteenth century, psychologists Miller (1983) suggests that psychologists
wanted psychology to become a science simply use the tools of a scientists (e.g.
because it would enable them to produce content analysis and quantative analysis), but
verifiable knowledge for their research. the essence of science has eluded them.…read more

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Validating New Knowledge/Research
Peer review is the assessment of scientific work and research, by others who are experts within the
same field. The intention of peer reviewing is to ensure that any research conducted and published is
of a high and valid quality.…read more

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Introduction and Aim ­ This is what the research intends to study (includes hypothesises).
Methodology ­ A detailed description of the research procedure is laid out (for replication).
Results ­ This is what the research found.
Discussion ­ The researcher may offer explanations and limitations about their research.
References ­ The full details of any journal articles/books that are mentioned.
Research Methods and Associated Concepts
All experiments involved an IV (Independent Variable) and a DV (Dependent Variable).…read more

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No experimenter effects. Participants are not allocated to conditions
which could reduce the experiments validity.
Increased external/ecological validity and
mundane realism. Natural studies are hard to replicate.
SelfReport Methods ­ Psychologists use questionnaires and interviews to find out what people
think and feel. They can be structured or unstructured (although structured allows for better
replication), and feature open or closed questions (open questions producing more unexpected,
qualitative data).…read more

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Random Sampling ­ Participants are gathered using a random number technique, the target
audience is first identified and then each proposed participants given a number, this number is then
randomly selected by either a lotterytechnique (`drawn from a hat') or from a random number
generator. This type of sampling produced an unbias sample because everybody has an equal
chance of being selected.…read more

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Internal Validity ­ How much the findings of a testmethod are due to the manipulation of a
variable, rather than another factors. (For example, if a manipulated IV affects an DV, the
testmethod has good internal validity).
External Validity ­ How much the findings of a testmethod can be generalised to different
settings, e.g. the environment (ecological validity) and people (population validity).…read more

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Why Use NonHuman Animals in Research? ­ There are four main reasons why researchers
would use nonhuman animals in research, they include
Some researchers want to study animals because they find them fascinating, and generally
want to help them succeed in life.
Animals offer the opportunity for greater control and objectivity in research procedures.
We may use animals when we can't use humans, for example Harlow's Monkey Experiment.…read more


alice schute

SAVIOUR !!!!!!!


Didn't find it very helpful :( 

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