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Science and pseudoscience Page 3
Scientific fraud Page 5
Ganzfeld study Page 7
Psychokinesis Page 10
Factors underlying anomalous experiences Page 12
Self-deception Page 17
Superstition and coincidence Page
Psychic healing Page 21
Out-of-body experience Page
Near-death experience Page 25
Psychic mediumship Page 26
Check list Page 28
Exam questions Page 29
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Science and pseudoscience
Pseudoscience means `false science' and refers to so-called science and scientific practices
with little or no scientific basis.
Scientific means:
Being objective- based on observable phenomena and not on personal opinion,
prejudices or emotion.
Empiricism- evidence rises from experiments. In pseudoscience myths are used to
support theories, unlike science where theories are tested by empirical research.
Irrefutable hypothesis; the aim of a scientific process is to test hypotheses. You
cannot prove a hypothesis right however you can only prove it wrong.…read more

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The way the results are interpreted and communicated. Science uses peer review,
where pseudoscience published straight to the public.
Science formulates it hypothesis and then the information is gathered,
pseudoscience formulates the hypothesis to support the data.
Validation of scientific analysis can be ensured though methodological pluralism- to
ensure the hypothesis can be assessed and if it needs to be falsified. Pseudoscience
uses a method that provides data to support the hypothesis.…read more

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Scientific fraud
Soal-Goldney (1938):
Soal-Goldney was a mathematician who investigated telepathy with 160 pts in a card
guessing task. Initially the results looked poor but when reviewing the data there were two
participants who performed better than others- Mrs Steward and Shackelton.
From 1941-1943 he tested Shackelton using a careful procedure. The experiment required:
A sender,
An agent,
The experimenter.
The sender had to send information by extra sensory means to the agent.…read more

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Methodological issues
· Research carried out by his own assistant proved that the results were due to Levy
tampering with the experimental apparatus.Another set of apparatus installed
without Levy knowing confirmed this as the score where much lower. There were
also witnesses to Levy pulling the plug from the back of the random generator
causing the equipment to only record hits for a period of time.
· Levy admitted his fraud and resigned.…read more

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Ganzfeld study
Extra sensory perception (ESP) relates to abilities beyond the understanding of science
where the perception of phenomena is possible outside of the normal 5 senses. These
abilities are usually categorised into telepathy, Psychokinesis, clairvoyance and precognition.
Metzger introduced the ganzfeld technique in the 1930s and have been used by
parapsychologists as providing scientific proof of telepathy. Honoroton developed the
technique to assess ESP and is now used as the main tool of parapsychological research.…read more

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At the end,the experimenter went into t he room where the participant was and removed
the headphones and Ping-Pong balls. The participant then walked to Sargent's office and was
asked to score all four pictures. The picture with the highest score is the one the participant
believes has been sent. The sender was then asked to disclose the target. A hit was
identified by the participants giving the target image the highest score.
Of the 12 sessions conducted there were 6 direct hits.…read more

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Test yourself
1. Outline the Ganzfeld procedure (4)
2. Outline research into the Ganzfeld technique (4)
3. Discuss methodological issues relating to Ganzfeld studies of ESP. (6)
4. What has research shown about the Ganzfeld technique (5)
5.…read more



This is really good!!! perfect for writing essays thank you so much :D 


These are amazing! Thank you!!  Do you have any on A2 pyschology research methods? :)

sally gardner

Thank you. You have saved me a lot of time.


No wonder there have been so many positive student reciews, this is great!

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