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All experiments involved an IV (Independent Variable) and a DV (Dependent
Variable). The IV is varied in order to see how this affects the DV, thus
demonstrating a relationship.
When designing an experiment psychologists must take into account the various
measures (experimental designs) which can be used, for example
Repeated Measures Each participant is tested on all of the IVs.
Independent Groups Separate groups are tested for each IV.…read more

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Design What? Positive Negative
Individual 2 different No order effects, so Individual differences
groups groups of results more valid than can lower internal
people, do one repeated measures. validity. Also usually
condition each, Same materials can be small sample, and
in which the IV used. can be expensive.
is manipulated
differently in
Repeated Same group of Cheaper as you can Order effects lower
measures pp's do every use the same internal validity, but
condition. equipment and pp's.…read more

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Order Effects
Controlling Order Effects
This involves splitting the sample so there is an equal chance of any
condition being the first or last
Reliability and Validity
The reliability of any method of measurement (e.g. interview,
questionnaire) refers to how consistent it measures something. A reliable
test will give similar results, in similar circumstances.
There are two different types of reliability
Internal Reliability ­ This refers to whether a testmethod is consistently
measuring what it should be.…read more

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A method of assessing internal reliability by comparing
SplitHalf Method two halves of a testmethod (e.g. a questionnaire) to see if
they produce the same score.
This assesses external reliability , by comparing the results
TestRetest of a test given in two different situations. If a positive
Method correlation is found, it has strong external reliability.
Two or more observer's record individual scores on the
InterRater test/participants, after comparing the results, if a positive
Reliability correlation is found there is good reliability.…read more

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Type What? Positive Negative
Random Everyone has All members of But some may
same chance of target pop have refuse to
being chosen. equal chance of partake so can
Names can be put being chosen end up with bias
in a hat, or reducing bias. sample.
random name
Stratified Subgroups in pop More representative But selection
identified, (boys & as it has within in group
girls), then a representations of may be biased.
number are taken, target pop.…read more

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Volunteer Asking for Can access variety Biased because
volunteer's in of people, so likely to get
newspaper etc. increases highly
representativeness. motivated/peopl
e with free time.
Snowball Find one pp and Good for studying Bias because
ask them to find issues hard to limited section of
another and so on. investigate (eating population.
disorders).…read more


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