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Research Methods

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All experiments involved an IV (Independent Variable) and a DV (Dependent
Variable). The IV is varied in order to see how this affects the DV, thus
demonstrating a relationship.

When designing an experiment psychologists must take into account the various
measures (experimental designs) which can be used, for example

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Design What? Positive Negative
Individual 2 different No order effects, so Individual differences
groups groups of results more valid than can lower internal
people, do one repeated measures. validity. Also usually
condition each, Same materials can be small sample, and
in which the IV used. can be expensive.
is manipulated…

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Surveys ­ A selfreport method for collecting data, such as interviews or
Advantages Disadvantages
Low cost ­ only need to pay for the Low response rate
production of the survey Social desirability bias
Ppts may feel more comfortable
revealing details than in a face to
face interview
Large amount…

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Participant variables
Include things like age, gender, level of hunger, how much sleep they have had, etc.
Can be referred to as DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS

Researcher Bias

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Order Effects

Controlling Order Effects

This involves splitting the sample so there is an equal chance of any
condition being the first or last

Reliability and Validity
The reliability of any method of measurement (e.g. interview,
questionnaire) refers to how consistent it measures something. A reliable
test will give…

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A method of assessing internal reliability by comparing
SplitHalf Method two halves of a testmethod (e.g. a questionnaire) to see if
they produce the same score.

This assesses external reliability , by comparing the results
TestRetest of a test given in two different situations. If a positive
Method correlation is…

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Type What? Positive Negative

Random Everyone has All members of But some may
same chance of target pop have refuse to
being chosen. equal chance of partake so can
Names can be put being chosen end up with bias
in a hat, or reducing bias. sample.
random name

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Volunteer Asking for Can access variety Biased because
volunteer's in of people, so likely to get
newspaper etc. increases highly
representativeness. motivated/peopl
e with free time.
Snowball Find one pp and Good for studying Bias because
ask them to find issues hard to limited section of
another and so on.…




some of the grammar in the revision notes is a little concerning (a few words are missing) but overall they are realy good :) ;)




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