America - Boom and Bust + Roosevelt and the New deal (OCR history)

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History
America ­ 1919 ­ 1941
Timeline
How was America Governed?
­ The constitution ­ set of rules drawn up by a group of Americans ­ describes how America should be
governed
­ Bill of Rights ­ part of the constitution that describes the rights of the people
­ Federal ­ system described by constitution ­ federal government is in Washington and local government is in
each state
­ Legislative ­ One of three branches part of the Federal Government ­ makes laws
­ Executive - One of three branches part of the Federal Government ­ carries out the laws
­ Judiciary - One of three branches part of the Federal Government ­ makes sure the laws are obeyed
Nobody is allowed to be part of more than one of these branches to make sure no one has too much power
Isolationist America
­ President Wilson took America into the first world war in 1917
­ Wilson wanted the US to take a lead in the league of Nations
­ Most Americans supported the isolationist view of not getting involved
­ Warren Harding was then elected President in 1920 (a republican)
­ The next 9 years America's economy boomed
The Boom
Why was there a boom in the 1920's?
Industrial strength
­ USA was very rich in natural resources ­ companies didn't need to import good s from foreign countries

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This meant trade was internal, keeping money internal and benefitting their economy ­ when industries got
bigger more jobs opened up and money filtered down all social classes
The First World War
­ Americans stayed out of the war (until the very end) but they did sell to the allies lots of munitions and
weapons ­ benefitted their economy
­ Took over European trade ­ became the main supplier of world trade ­ e.g.…read more

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Moral values changed ­ Jazz music became popular, more equality for women (they had jobs), the film
industry was made, dancing and flapper girls
­ Buying on credit ­ `buy now pay later' scheme ­ many cars and radios were bought like this
Did everyone share in the prosperity of the boom?
The Farming industry
­ After the war Europe imported a lot less food from America ­ because Europe was poor and also was a
response to the high tariffs put in place by…read more

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In 1924 the Government were worried with the high levels of immigrants and radicals, so put a limit on
immigration
The Klu Klux Klan (KKK)
­ In the southern states there were more African Americans than there were White Americans
­ White Governments, fearing there power, put many laws in place which controlled their freedom ­ they could
not vote, denied access to good jobs and education ­ so they suffered great poverty
­ The Klu Klux Klan were a radically racist white group who…read more

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It quickly emerged that they were anarchists and the trial became a lot more about their political beliefs and
Italian race
­ The Judge was biased and prejudiced ­ he even said that they may not have committed the crime but is to
blame because they were anarchists
­ After 7 years of appeals they were executed in 1927 ­ protests broke out
The Monkey Trial
­ Urban people believed in Evolution theory
­ Rural people still very fundamentalist and religious ­ believed in creation…read more

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Big Breweries stayed in business ­ they bribed local government officials, prohibition agents and the police
to leave them alone
­ It was hard to convict people because many judges were also bribed
Gangsters, Bootleggers and Speakeasies
­ Bootleggers supplied the alcohol from overseas or illegal places in America
­ They sold it to the gangster who made lots of money by running speakeasies
­ The liquor trade and speakeasies also boosted other illegal trades like prostitution, gambling, and protection
rackets ­ all of them…read more

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Also because of the high tariffs America put on imports, the Europeans retaliated and put high tariffs on US
imports too ­ this meant that the surplus of goods that America had couldn't be sold overseas to Europe and
there industries weakened
­ As a result of this companies had a surplus of goods and the price and value of them fell ­ which resulted in
huge company losses and a drop in the price of shares ­ leading the Wall Street Crash
­ When…read more

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Hoover didn't believe in an active government and wouldn't prop up the banks or businesses ­ believing
they should be the ones to sort their problems out ­ also he didn't help the poor because he felt that it would
mean the people would be less independent and less willing to work
The Campaign
­ Franklin Roosevelt was the complete opposite from Hoover ­ he believed in:
o An `active government' to help the lives of the people
o He had plans to spend public…read more

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The Tennessee Tackle the The Tennessee Valley covered seven states and Created thousands of jobs
Valley Authority problem of the was a problem. Roosevelt set up the TVA to build and regenerated the area.
(TVA) river drying and a series of dams on the Tennessee river that
reducing farm would flood.…read more

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Federal Arts project.
Resettlement To move They helped smallholders and tenant farmers Over 500,000 families were
Administration people into move into better quality housing moved into better quality
(RA) better housing housing by the scheme
The Farm Help farmers Gave loans to farmers to help them buy their land. Helped farmers buy land and
Security buy land Also built camps to provide decent living migrant workers to have better
Administration conditions for migrant workers places to live.…read more

Comments

Miss E

An excellent set of notes for this depth study covering all major areas using easy to understand bullet points and including a table for both the first and second New Deals. A must for revision of this topic.

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