A2 Unit 4 Geography - Tectonic activity and hazards (specific to 2012 pre-release)

Basic plan for the exam, some potential questions, structure of the report, an almost exemplar report. 

Excuse the mistakes on the report, it was done in exam conditions and copied out onto the computer word-for-word. I've mentioned the mark i was given by my teacher, and he's a harsh marker. 

Hope this helps. 


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Preview of A2 Unit 4 Geography - Tectonic activity and hazards (specific to 2012 pre-release)

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Tectonics Exam
Jordanna Wetenhall
Explore and Research Focus
Explore the range of factors that make tectonic activity increasingly hazardous to humans and how
the impact of disasters varies over time.
Research a range of social and economic impacts, resulting from seismic and volcanic hazards in
contrasting locations, and how these may have varied over time.
Denoting the title
Factors ­ are these human or physical? Include event profiles, specific hazards, country data (e.g.
HDIs), quality of infrastructure, etc.
Increasingly hazardous ­ do you agree, how has tectonic activity become more hazardous? How has it
not? Hazard risk equation from `World At Risk', form a counter-argument depending on your opinion
Impacts ­ explore the social and economic effects. Do these overlap?
Varies over time ­ the trends of disasters and tectonic activity over years, include case studies from
many years ago discussing the varying impacts
Contrasting locations ­ use an array of case studies from densely-sparsely populated, high-low levels
of economic development, technologically advanced and not, etc.
Possible exam questions
"The social and economic impacts of tectonic hazards have increased over time". Discuss with
reference to examples from contrasting locations.
Assess the extent to which the social and economic impacts of tectonic hazards have increased over
time, with reference to examples from contrasting locations.
"Tectonic activity has become increasingly hazardous to humans over time". Discuss with reference
to social and economic impacts from contrasting locations.
Assess the extent to which tectonic activity has become increasingly hazardous to humans over time,
with reference to social and economic impacts from contrasting locations.
How to structure the examined report:
PLAN = make sure you plan before the exam, CONSTANTLY refer back
1.0 ­ Introduction
Define tectonic activity ­ include diagram of convection current cell
Define hazard/hazardous ­ include what `increasingly' would refer to
Reference varies over time ­ mention a time scale with some examples
Highlight the 3 main body arguments ­ why are these the most important?
Define social/economic ­ any overlaps?
Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Answer the question.

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­ Methodology
Demonstrate what you researched
Why did you research these?
Analyse the sources, are they biased?
Case studies ­ why did you choose these?
How are these researched sources suitable and how do they apply ­ are they transferrable?
Say how you will conclude the report: "At the end, I will conclude an overriding argument..."
2.0 ­ MAIN BODY (reference throughout)
2.…read more

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­ Frequency and magnitude of tectonic events
Frequency has indefinitely increased over time, and magnitude has also
5 highest mag earthquakes occurred within last 50 yrs.
Death toll and damage rates to people and property authenticates how hazards are becoming
more hazardous
c/s #15 Philippines. Disaster hotspot = tectonics + hydrometeorlogical, expansion of
population (megacity Manila)
death toll has been "75,000... higher than any comparable period in the last century" (Spence
etal, 2011)
As knowledge increases, perception of events gets worse, thus more hazardous.…read more

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HDI ­ 0.884
3. Haitian Earthquake
12th January, 2010 ­ 4.53pm
6.8-7.0 magnitude earthquake ­ 52 aftershocks, shallow focus
Devastated capital Port-au-Prince, massive poverty in slum dwellings, thus poor infrastructure
HDI ­ 0.532
222,000 dead, 300,000 injured
Child smuggling, trafficking, looting, etc. Political instability did not aid the criminal activity
1.3 mil still in refugee camps
4. Los Angeles
1906 7.9 magnitude earthquake
5.…read more

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­ rural location
200,000 effected
HDI ­ 0.504
12. Kobe, Japan
17th January 1995, 5.46am
6.8 ­ 7.3 magnitude earthquake
Shallow focus
6,434 people died
$100+ billion damage
13. Christchurch, New Zealand
7.1 magnitude
4th September 2010, 4.35am
Widespread damage, especially to the ancient structures of the city
Aftershocks of 6.3 ­ 181 killed in aftershock
0 killed, 100+ injuries many minor, only a few severe
14. Iceland Volcano
14th April 2010
0 killed
Stopped UK air traffic, economically damaging
Ash cloud huge
15.…read more

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R ­ research, 15 Use of appropriate case studies, with evidence of where the information came from
methodolog and an appreciation of likely bias.
A ­ analysis, 20 The degree to which the research supports the question set, with evidence of clear
application, understanding of different values/perspectives about the question.
C­ 15 Summary of arguments and evaluation of the issues developed throughout the
conclude, report.…read more

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­ Main body, begin argument, brief statement
2.1 ­ Population and Urbanisation
2.1.1 ­ Sub conclusion
2.2 ­ Technology/Development
2.2.1 ­ Sub conclusion
2.3 ­ Frequency and magnitude
2.3.1 ­ Sub Conclusion
Park model?
Hazard event profile
Convection current cell
3.0 ­ Conclusion ­ overriding argument must be stated
4.0 ­ Bibliography ­ sites, books, articles, etc must be referenced
Stick to the question, reference throughout and counter-argue
1.…read more

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Human population and urbanisation has dramatically increased
Technological advances
The frequency of the events and their magnitude has been amplified
A social impact is any impact that directly affects human life, such as injury, loss of livelihood or death, either
personally or in a community. An economic impact is an impact that costs money to repair the damages to the local or
national economy. There is naturally some crossover, for example, destruction of a house is both social and economic
impacts.…read more

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At the end of my report I will conclude an overriding argument to assess my research and include a bibliography to
cite relevant sources.
2.1 Population and Urbanisation
As a result of population growth and the expansion of the urban population worldwide over the past few
decades, the hazardousness of tectonic events has increased for a number of associated reasons.
71% of the 100 most populous cities lie on an active major plate boundary.…read more

Page 10

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After the initial quake almost all buildings in the capital collapsed. The slum dwellings, and poor infrastructure
meant that the people's capacity to cope and their vulnerability is significantly heightened.
222,000 people died, and the additional aftershocks prevented rescue efforts. In almost all earthquakes, there
tends to be a series of aftershocks which causes extra hazards to a weakened population. Haiti had significant social
problems which worsened as the impacts were felt throughout the country.…read more


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