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Case studies for unit 4
EXPLORE THE RANGE OF STRATEGIES USED TO MANAGE TECTONIC HAZARDS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THEIR OCCURRENCE.
RESEARCH CONTRASTING EXAMPLES OF MANAGING A RANGE OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TECTONIC HAZARDS.
Case study 1- Christchurch, New Zealand (2011)
Previously unknown strike-slip fault.
Shallow focus earthquake.
Many buildings weakened by the September 2010 earthquake.
Liquefaction was widespread which was further damaging by the ruptured water pipes.
Cost $16 million.
Half of the buildings were destroyed.
Canterbury television building killed 85 people/
Canterbury Earthquake Recovery was established.
Land zoning to classify damage and the cost of repairs.
JUSTIFICATION-It highlights the point that tectonic events can only be prepared for if there is previous knowledge. Christchurch
earthquake occurred on a previously unknown fault line and so had little tectonic proof. The North Island, however, in
comparison has frequent earthquakes and has building regulations and tectonic preparedness. In the South Island (where the
earthquake occurred), there was little regulations on the building codes and so is why 85 people were killed in one building
(Canterbury Television Centre).
Case study 2-Indonesia, 2012
People moved to a higher ground as at least 8 countries issued tsunami alerts.
Countries in the Indian Ocean have heavily invested in disaster response.
Phones alert people to the risk.
JUSTIFICATION-It allows a comparison between the 2012 earthquake in Indonesia and the 2004 earthquake (and subsequent
tsunami) which shows the difference as a result of preparation.
Case study 3- Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2004
The mega-thrust earthquake involved a 20m uplift of the sea floor across the fault line which was 1000km in length.
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Approximately 220,000 people were killed.
58,555 people affected.
120,000 + lives were affected as a result of tourism.
Secondary hazards included cholera which killed approximately 150,000 people.
Emergency response/rescue/preparation impact
Early warning system has been installed in the Indian Ocean which cost $20 million.
JUSTIFICATION-It allows a comparison between this and the 2012 earthquake but also it highlights what occurs as a result of
the lack of preparation to manage secondary tectonic hazards.…read more
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Air pollution was 400mSv an hour.
Food sources were contaminated and South Korea banned fish from Sendai (the location of the earthquake) in
3,900 roads were damaged.
19,000 people were dead.
100,000 children were left homeless.
Cost 6% of Japan's GDP.
Japan Meteorological Agency with earthquake resilient buildings.
JUSTIFICATION- it highlights the idea that primary hazards are easy to prepare for as they are similar in every tectonic event.
Secondary and tertiary events are less predictable and only common to certain areas.…read more