The Nazi Regime: How Effectively Did the Nazis Control Germany, 1933-45?

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  • The Nazi Regime: How Effectively Did the Nazis Control Germany, 1933-45?
    • How Much Opposition Was There to the Nazi Regime?
      • How Effectively did the Nazis Deal with Their Political Opponents?
        • Opposition Was Weak Under the Nazis
          • The Night of the Long Knives
            • After the enabling Act, Hitler still had opposition - rivals within the Nazi party itself
              • On the night of 29th June 1934, Hitler sent his own men to take out key opposition leaders - several hundred killed
                • Ernst Rohm - commander of the SA (400,000 men)
                • Strasser and von Schleicher
                • Any potential opposition had been wiped out
                  • With Hindenburg's death a month later, Hitler assumed the Presidency as well and became Der Fuhrer
          • Thousands of those who did voice opposition were sent to concentration camps
          • Anti-Nazi activity had to be carried out in secret - it was difficult for groups to work together
          • Nazi propoganda persuaded most people that they were better off under Hitler
          • Most who disagreed with the Nazis were too afraid to voice their opinions and be at the mercy of the regime
        • Army Resistance Grew Dueing the War
          • As the War started to go badly, some believed Hitler was leading them to defeat
          • There had been plots against Hitler from army officers before the war, but these became more serious after defeats sty El Alamein and Stalingrad in 1942
          • One of the most famous plots was when Claus von Shauffenberg planted a bomb in a meeting room, but Hitler survived and most of the plotters were executed in 1944
        • The Nazis Overcame Most Resistance
          • How Much Opposition Was There to the Nazi Regime?
            • How Effectively did the Nazis Deal with Their Political Opponents?
              • Opposition Was Weak Under the Nazis
                • The Night of the Long Knives
                  • After the enabling Act, Hitler still had opposition - rivals within the Nazi party itself
                    • On the night of 29th June 1934, Hitler sent his own men to take out key opposition leaders - several hundred killed
                      • Ernst Rohm - commander of the SA (400,000 men)
                      • Strasser and von Schleicher
                      • Any potential opposition had been wiped out
                        • With Hindenburg's death a month later, Hitler assumed the Presidency as well and became Der Fuhrer
                • Thousands of those who did voice opposition were sent to concentration camps
                • Anti-Nazi activity had to be carried out in secret - it was difficult for groups to work together
                • Nazi propoganda persuaded most people that they were better off under Hitler
                • Most who disagreed with the Nazis were too afraid to voice their opinions and be at the mercy of the regime
              • Army Resistance Grew Dueing the War
                • As the War started to go badly, some believed Hitler was leading them to defeat
                • There had been plots against Hitler from army officers before the war, but these became more serious after defeats sty El Alamein and Stalingrad in 1942
                • One of the most famous plots was when Claus von Shauffenberg planted a bomb in a meeting room, but Hitler survived and most of the plotters were executed in 1944
              • The Nazis Overcame Most Resistance
                • The Nazis banned Communist groups and sent many to concentration camps
                • Some opposition came from religious groups, especially after Church land was confiscated
                • Jehovah's Witnesses were prosecuted fore not supporting the regime, with many sent to camps
                • Some opponents of the Reich Church joined together as the Confessing Church
                • Catholic dissent was more widespread after 1937, when Pope Pius XI sent out a letter protesting of Nazi nationalism and racism
                • Catholic protestors had some success in reducing Nazi interference with the Church
              • Edelweiss Pirates
                • Groups of rebellious young people who were difficult to control - 'Everlasting war on Hitler Youth'
                • Many sided with the Allies - several were executed
              • The White Rose
                • Munich 1943 - a group of students under this title were arrested for passive resistance like distributing anti-Nazi leaflets
                  • Sophie and Hans School were executed among others
            • Swing Kids
              • A group that liked banned jazz music - they were a nuisance more than a threat
          • The Nazis banned Communist groups and sent many to concentration camps
          • Some opposition came from religious groups, especially after Church land was confiscated
          • Jehovah's Witnesses were prosecuted fore not supporting the regime, with many sent to camps
          • Some opponents of the Reich Church joined together as the Confessing Church
          • Catholic dissent was more widespread after 1937, when Pope Pius XI sent out a letter protesting of Nazi nationalism and racism
          • Catholic protestors had some success in reducing Nazi interference with the Church
        • Edelweiss Pirates
          • Groups of rebellious young people who were difficult to control - 'Everlasting war on Hitler Youth'
          • Many sided with the Allies - several were executed
        • The White Rose
          • Munich 1943 - a group of students under this title were arrested for passive resistance like distributing anti-Nazi leaflets
            • Sophie and Hans School were executed among others
      • Swing Kids
        • A group that liked banned jazz music - they were a nuisance more than a threat
    • How did the Nazis Use Culture, Propaganda and the Mass Media to Control the People?
      • Propoganda
        • Controlled media; used radio, film and posters to spread their messages
        • The Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, headed by Joseph Goebbels
          • All culturists had to register to get their work approved
          • Censorship
            • Books, newspapers and other material were censored
              • All culturists had to register to get their work approved
            • Those who published anti-Nazi material risked execution
            • Used to encourage nationalism and anti-Semistism
              • Patriotic composers like Wagner were praised but others like Mendelssohn were banned
        • Massive public rallies to present power and popularity
          • Also used the 1936 Berlin Olympics to generate international publicity
      • Censorship
        • Books, newspapers and other material were censored
          • Those who published anti-Nazi material risked execution
          • Used to encourage nationalism and anti-Semistism
            • Patriotic composers like Wagner were praised but others like Mendelssohn were banned
        • Police State
          • The SS  - C.O Heinrich Himmler
            • The Gestapo
              • Terrorised the public and cruelly deposed opposition
            • Terrorised the public and cruelly deposed opposition
          • Concentration Camps
            • Housed political prisoners and anyone else considered dangerous
          • Local Wardens
            • Effectively civilian 'snitches'
        • Diluting the Church
          • Agreement between the Church and the Nazis not to interfere with each other
          • Hitler tried to unite the different Protestant churches into one Reich Church
            • Some split off and formed the Confessing Church - many clergy were sent to concentration camps
      • Why did the Nazis Persecute Many Groups in German Society?
        • Aryan Supremacy
          • Aryans are the master race and everyone else (Jews and Slaves in particular) are inferior
          • Jews and Communists are to blame for problems in German society
          • Eliminate all those who aren't 'pure' Aryans - the disabled, homosexuals etc.
          • Jesse Owens pissed off Hitler coz he black nigga
        • The Persecution of the Jews
          • 1935 - Nuremberg Laws
            • Stopped Jews being German citizens
            • Banned marriage between Jews and non-Jews
            • Banned sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews
          • 1938 - the Night of the Broken Glass
            • A Jew murdered a German diplomat in Paris, November 1938
              • Rioting throughout Germany - Jews were terrorised
          • Jews Moved to Ghettos
            • After invasions of Poland and Russia, more Jews came under Nazi control
              • From 1940, Jews were forced into ghettos
                • Conditions are terrible, starvation and disease were rife
            • 1942 - The Final Solution
              • To destroy the Jewish people
                • Death camps such as Auschwitz, equipped with gas chambers, were built all over Europe
                  • By the end of the war, approximately 6 million Jews had been murdered by the SS's Death's- Head units
              • To destroy other groups such as blacks, homosexuals, the disabled and Communists
                • Death camps such as Auschwitz, equipped with gas chambers, were built all over Europe
                  • By the end of the war, approximately 6 million Jews had been murdered by the SS's Death's- Head units
        • Jews Moved to Ghettos
          • After invasions of Poland and Russia, more Jews came under Nazi control
            • From 1940, Jews were forced into ghettos
              • Conditions are terrible, starvation and disease were rife
          • 1942 - The Final Solution
            • To destroy the Jewish people
              • To destroy other groups such as blacks, homosexuals, the disabled and Communists

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