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Hitler's dictatorship
The Enabling Act 1933 ­ gave Hitler right to
pass laws without consulting the Reichstag.
End of democracy?
Trade unions were abolished May 1933 as
part of a policy of co-ordination
All other political parties banned in July 1933
Opponents fled abroad or were arrested.…read more

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The Night of the Long Knives
By early 1934 only real rival to Hit personal power
was SA
3 million of them, they thought Hit owed them a debt
for helping him, wanted jobs and rewards, more left
wing, their leader Ernst Rohm wanted to merge SA
and army and be head
June 1934 Hitler ordered SS to execute 400 SA
leaders, incl Rohm.
A few weeks later Hindenburg died ­ Hit became Der
Fuhrer. Army swore oath of loyalty to Hitler.…read more

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Made a Concordat with the Pope in 1933 not to interfere in the
life of the RC Church but this did not last ­ Hit arrested several
priests by 1937
Hitler set up a `Reich Church' of Nazi supporters `with the
swastika on our chests and the cross in our hearts'
Many Protestants did not agree & left
Many arrested incl Martin Niemoeller who had set up the
Confessional Church in opp to Hitler. Although he was
imprisoned, the Church continued.…read more

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Police, Concentration Camps
After 1936 the Gestapo, were under the
control of Himmler. They could arrest and
imprison without trial.…read more

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What opposition was there?
Young people ­ Edelweiss Pirates, Swing
Jewish risings ­ Warsaw Ghetto 1943
July Bomb Plot 1944 ­ led by senior army
officer, 4 killed. All involved + 5,000 others
executed.…read more

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Why were opposition groups
not very successful?
Lack of co-ordination
Divided aims
Fear of what might happen if the
Gestapo discovered what they were
doing…read more

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How did the Nazis use culture and
mass media to control people?
Thought Control
Goebbels turned his attention to
propaganda and censorship
Books, films, plays & art all controlled ­ book
burnings of `degenerate' work
Cheap radios - Nazi programmes
Messages broadcast from loudspeakers in
Music censored ­ Jazz banned
Propaganda films e.g. Triumph of Will
Rallies e.g.…read more

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Past Paper Exam Questions: 2002
a) Explain what Hitler did in 1933 to
make himself a dictator
b) Why did Hitler order the Night of the
Long Knives in 1934?
c) How far were the Nazis in control of
German people between 1933 and
1945? Explain your answer.…read more


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