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Year 11 Revision
SJA: Session 1

The Nazi regime: how effectively
did the Nazis control Germany

Page 2

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Hitler's dictatorship
The Enabling Act 1933 ­ gave Hitler right to
pass laws without consulting the Reichstag.
End of democracy?
Trade unions were abolished May 1933 as
part of a policy of co-ordination
All other political parties banned in July 1933
Opponents fled abroad or were arrested.
Concentration camps (first…

Page 3

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The Night of the Long Knives
By early 1934 only real rival to Hit personal power
was SA
3 million of them, they thought Hit owed them a debt
for helping him, wanted jobs and rewards, more left
wing, their leader Ernst Rohm wanted to merge SA
and army and…

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Made a Concordat with the Pope in 1933 not to interfere in the
life of the RC Church but this did not last ­ Hit arrested several
priests by 1937
Hitler set up a `Reich Church' of Nazi supporters `with the
swastika on our chests and the cross in…

Page 6

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Police, Concentration Camps
After 1936 the Gestapo, were under the
control of Himmler. They could arrest and
imprison without trial.
People were encouraged to inform on each
other - helped by members of Nazi Party
By 1929 25,000 in concentration camps, by
1941 this was 250,000
Atmosphere of fear

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What opposition was there?
Young people ­ Edelweiss Pirates, Swing
Jewish risings ­ Warsaw Ghetto 1943
July Bomb Plot 1944 ­ led by senior army
officer, 4 killed. All involved + 5,000 others
White Rose Movement ­ printed anti-Nazi
propaganda, led by Hans and Sophie Scholl -

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Why were opposition groups
not very successful?
Lack of co-ordination
Divided aims
Fear of what might happen if the
Gestapo discovered what they were

Page 9

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How did the Nazis use culture and
mass media to control people?
Thought Control
Goebbels turned his attention to
propaganda and censorship
Books, films, plays & art all controlled ­ book
burnings of `degenerate' work
Cheap radios - Nazi programmes
Messages broadcast from loudspeakers in
Music censored ­ Jazz…

Page 10

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Past Paper Exam Questions: 2002
a) Explain what Hitler did in 1933 to
make himself a dictator
b) Why did Hitler order the Night of the
Long Knives in 1934?
c) How far were the Nazis in control of
German people between 1933 and
1945? Explain your answer.


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