The Nazi Regime

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How effectively did the Nazis control Germany 1933-45?

What was it like to live in Nazi Germany?

I also have powerpoints on the Weimar Govt and the rise of Nazism :)

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THE NAZI REGIME

How effectively did the Nazis control Germany 1933-45?

PROPOGANDA:

1933 Goebbels = Minister for People's Enlightenment and Propaganda

Radios:
cheap radios made that picked up only Nazi programmes
Nazis controlled all radio stations
had more radios per head than USA

Newspapers:
closed 2/3 German papers
controlled info…

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OPPOSITION:

Coups d'etat: hardly any
first 10yrs ­ no attempted coups
last yrs when regime failing ­ plots ag. Hit gain support

Underground resistance/ open opposition: not a lot
underground resistance:
o working class groups produce anti-Nazi leaflets
o people eg. Pastor Gruber help Jews
o sabotage of factories/ railways/…

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o people pleased with Nazis ­ thought good things ­ stability and
prosperity ­ outweighed the bad

Opposition Groups:

Church opposition:
who denomination what opposed how dealt w/ by Nazis

Martin Protestant `German Xtians' -> c.c. (along w/
Niemoeller formed alt. hundreds of other
`confessional ministers)
church'

Paul Schneider Protestant…

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couldn't exterminate/ send to c.c. because needed future workers ->
responded uncertainly
later began to clamp down:
o 1942 739 E.P.s in Cologne -> labour camps
o 1944 ­ hung cologne leaders

White rose group:
students in Munich
distributed leaflets
arrested and executes

Red orchestra:
communist group
spied for Soviet…

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· Judges took oath of personal loyalty to Hitler disposed of his
opponents, no fair trials, death sentence inc.

Informers
block wardens visit weekly ­ take donations, check up
reports on `political reliability' of block residents

PERSECUTION OF MINORITIES

Romany people/ Gypsies
· Non-Aryan (therefore inferior), seen as work shy…

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Nazi genocide and the Holocaust

Victims of shooting, burning, starvation, disease, medical experiments in camps
esp. in Poland
· Invalids, disabled & mentally handicapped
· Asocials inc. homosexuals
· Romany people/Gypsies
· Poles (especially intelligentsia, army & top strata)
· Slavs
· Communists

Anti-Semitism
· Not a new phenomenon ­…

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Number of policies considered 1939-41 to deal with Jewish question eg
deportation to Madagascar or slave labour (Jews and others to be
worked to death)

What was it like to live in Nazi Germany?

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Big business:
Pros: Cons:

massive profits and salary much govt control over: what…

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`Strength Through Joy' ave. working week rose 43h
organised leisure time for (1933) -> 47h (1939)
workers ­ cheap holidays, workers forced to take low paid
concerts, sports jobs (often lower than
unemployment 6m (1933) -> 2m unemployment benefit) far from
(1936) home
ind. wages increased nearly skilled workers forced…

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o 1939 membership of a Nazi youth movement compulsory
other youth organisations absorbed/ illegal
summer camps/ leisure activities ­ camping, sports, acting
labour camps 18-25yr olds

Other:
prop targeted youth
special interest in youth by Hitler at rallies
summer camps/ long school hours -> saw less of parents
alienated from…

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Restrictions:
Measures to remove women from labour market esp. professionals eg.
drs, lawyers etc BUT 1933-39 women employed rose from 5m to 7.4m
female labour = cheaper AND unemployment dropped then war started
Education - university numbers dropped
Appearance - makeup, trousers, permed/dyed hair discouraged
Health - slimming discouraged (could…

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