Surgery Mindmap

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  • Surgery
    • Anatomy
      • Dissection
        • Was accepted during the Renaissance period
          • Was illegal during the medieval era
      • People used to go to the local barber surgons
        • During the middle ages
      • Lectures were basic in universities
        • A butcher would point to body parts while reading Galen's work
          • Many would believe Galen although we know he got a lot wrong
          • No one would dare challenge Galen
    • Infection
      • Joseph Lister
        • Interested in Pasteurs work
        • In 1864 he realised carbolic acid was put in the sewage works to kill microbes
        • He then used Carbolic Acid during surgery to kill microbes
          • In 1864 he realised carbolic acid was put in the sewage works to kill microbes
        • Changed the death rate by 2/3rds
      • Semmelweis
        • He had gloves made for his wife to protect her from the carbolic acid
        • Showed people that child bed fever was contagious
          • 1847
    • Blood Loss
      • Cauterisation
        • Using heat or an electrical current to stop blood loss
        • Done by only the skilful surgeons
        • Ambroise Pare
          • French surgeon
          • Developed metal clips to place on arteries during an operation
            • Problems
              • Still very painful
              • Infection on the clips
      • Problems
        • Surgeons cant see what their doing
        • Low blood pressure causes fainting and death
        • Infection
      • Transfusions
        • Doctors would use mosty pig or sheeps blood
          • Would never work, patients would never survive
        • Dr Leacock was convinced you needed human blood
        • By luck blood groups would match so humans would survive
        • 1900
          • Karl Landsteiner
            • Discovered blood groups
            • Before majority would of died due to body rejecting wrong blood group
            • Opposition to blood transfusions
              • Religious Beliefs
              • People didn't like the idea of having another persons blood in them
    • Pain
      • Anaesthetics
        • Chloroform
          • James Simpson
            • 1847
              • Experimented using many chemicals until found Chlorofom
                • James Simpson
                  • 1847
                    • Experimented using many chemicals until found Chlorofom
            • Hannah Greener in 1848 died having a toe operation
              • First person to die of Chloroform
          • Nitrous Oxide Laughing Gas'
            • Sir Humphry Davy
            • Realised that this gas reduced the feel of pain
              • Sir Humphry Davy
            • 1799
            • Did not completely stop the pain and patients would not be completely uncocious
          • Ether
            • John Collins
              • 1846 he removed a neck tumour using Ether
            • 1846 he removed a neck tumour using Ether
            • Robert Liston
              • 1847
                • Ether
                  • John Collins
                    • Robert Liston
                      • 1847
                        • Used John Collins idea of Ether too
                    • Used John Collins idea of Ether too

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