S&P L12-13 (BIRMINGHAM BACKGROUND)

  • Created by: Hadley023
  • Created on: 19-03-19 11:14
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  • Birmingham
    • Background
      • Heart of the west midlands. 1.1 million residents (2014).
      • Majority of interventions in Britain in the 19th Century within 50km of the city centre.
      • 25% of British exports originate in Birmingham.
      • Boulton and Watt began their partnership in 1775 revolutionizing the production of more efficient steam engines.
    • Development Pre-Industrial
      • Mentioned in the Domesday book 1086. Poor agricultural manor.
      • Metal working was established and Dudley and Wolverhamp' supplied raw materials.
      • 1563 - William Camden reported the town was swarming with inhabitants.
      • De Birmingham family purchased the royal charter in 1166, allowing them to hold a market - it then grew in size.
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Middle class began to grow in numbers for services such as law and banking.
      • Clearly differentiated housing areas based on socio-economic status.
      • Food industries set up to supply the growing population.
      • Transport infrastructure improved with industrial growth.
      • London to Birmingham railway opened in 1838.
      • Matthew Boulton - key player in moving industrial base of the town forward. His "Soho Machinery" brought 700 employees under one roof.
    • 1900-1950s
      • Continuous population growth from immigration and from rural areas.
      • Continued to grow during first half of the 20th Century, new engineering industries developed.
      • 1917 - Dunlop tyre factory. Employed 10,000 by the 1950s.
      • Large areas of terraced house built and squeezed into spaces between factories.
      • Limited personal mobility meant people lived near work and walked in.
      • Development of the middle class who could afford to commute helped the expansion.
      • Transport development facilitated the urban expansion and outward growth of the built area.
    • 1950s housing
      • Inner city areas comprised of low quality and high density houses.
      • Decades of industrial activity have left land sites, canals and rivers with high levels of pollution.
      • Air pollution reached high levels with controls on emissions almost non-existent.

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