Geography - Case Studies (Human)

  • Created by: tayloruk
  • Created on: 22-06-19 11:44

European Union / EU (Trading Block)

A European trading block consisting of 28 member states (27 once the United Kingdom leaves), with no tarriffs, Border controls or visa requirements. A majority (19) use the Euro as their official currency as well.

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ASEAN / Association of South East Asian Nations (T

ASEAN is a trading block based in South East Asia, it comprises 10 member states including Vietnam and Thailand. It was founded in 1967 with the Bangkok declaration. Similar to the EU, travel between member states is visa free, however there are border checks. 

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NAFTA / North American Free Trade Agreement (Tradi

NAFTA is a free trade agreement between the United States, Canada and Mexico with the intension of boosting trade in North America via tarriff free trade, however, NAFTA does not allow for the free movement of people without visa.

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San Francisco Bay Area (Regeneration & Gentrificat

San Francisco Bay Area used to be once a quiet suburb of the city with a large hispanic population, however, due to large technology companies moving into Silicon Valley the city has been swarmed with wealthier workers of whom work at these tech companies. Roughly 17,000 workers catch shuttle buses every day to get from San Francisco to Silicon Valley provided by their respective companies now in one way this is great, increased investment in an area which historically hasn't been economically powerful will boost the local economy, despite this, it has also led to these highly educated tech employees buying up property and pushing property prices too high meaning many residents whom have lived their for 20, 30, 40 maybe even 50 years have to move as they can no longer afford to pay rent for their home.

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Government Regeneration Projects 1 (Regeneration &


HS2 (High Speed 2), is a high speed train line which will connect London to Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds within 2 hours, the project would generate 7000 construction jobs, however, cost Billions of Pounds to finish.

Housing Demand and Affordability 

The government has introduced the "Help to buy scheme"  along with the plan to construct 1,000,000 new homes, the Help to buy scheme allows first time buyers to put a deposit of only 5% on a house, these new homes are mostly being built on Brownfield Sites. 

Heathrow's Proposed Runway 3

The plan for Heathrow's new runway would cost between £13Bn - £18Bn and be completed by 2029, incresing flight capacity by 260,000 per year, along with this a development at Gatwick with the intension of keeping business within the United Kingdom.

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Government Regeneration Projects 2 (Regeneration &


The Government believes that shale gas has the potential to provide the UK with greater energy security, growth and Jobs. Roughly 6000 Square miles have been licenced for Frackingin Yorkshire and Lancastershire. The £5Mn fund for shale oil has been questioned due to its health concerns of causing earthquakes and tremors.


180Km of rail from Heathrow to London and onto Shenfield, increasing London's rail capacity by roughly 10% and will add an estimated £42Bn to the UK economy with 14,000 new jobs. 

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Liverpool (Raise & Decline)

Raise of Liverpool

Liverpool was one of England's leading ports for trade to North America and the Caribbean, the textile industry was one ofthe largest and was home to the first intercity rail link with Manchester.

Decline of Liverpool

The decline of Liverpool started during the second world war, after being heavily bombed and no longer the need for the port led to outwards migration, in return leading to less investment and a spiral of decline.

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Rural Regeneration - Cornwall (Regeneration)

2001 - Eden Project 

Based around 2 giant greenhouses, one of the top 5 best pay to enter tourist sites in the country, attracts around 1.2 million visitors a year, try to source Cornish supplies, cost around £120 million to build, reduced Cornwall’s unemployment by 6%

2008 - Newquay Airport

Has flights to Cardiff, Brittany and Barcelona, 2009 high commented certificate, new executive lounge opened, destination Cornwall outlet opened, free wifi in 2010 in the airport, 2015 passenger numbers increased by 15%, funding from Government for Newquay to Gatwick route.

2015 - Bodmin Cycle Town

£7m investment, expanding and building of cycle network, attracts many tourists

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Bhutan (Turned Off Places)

Employment  - Agriculture = 43.7%

                      -         Industry = 39.1%

                      -         Services = 17.2%

Main religion – Buddhism

Population – 708,500 (less than Birmingham)

Literacy rate – Male 60% and Female 34%

Life expectancy – 66 yrs for men and 70 yrs for women

Flag – Contains a dragon with a half red and yellow background.

Main jobs – Electricity, timber cement, agricultural products, handicrafts

GDP per capita - $2,020 (2009)

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The First Nations Of Canada (Globalisation)

The Oil company Enbridge started building oil pipes through native land to get to Canada's natural tar sands oil fields.

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Examples of Pressure Groups and NGO's

Pressure Groups


- Greenpeace

- Oxfam 

- Extinction Rebellion

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China's Open Door Policy (Globalisation)

China (Previously a Communist Regime), adopted a more "pro Capitalist" stance in 1978 with their "open door policy" leading to SEZ's (Special Economic Zones) in 1980 which eventually led to China opening up and turning their government into a more open, yet still authoritarian one.

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