Birmingham

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  • Birmingham
    • why it needed rebranding
      • heavily  bombed after the war, was built quickly and cheaply without little planning out of concrete (became the 'concrete jungle)
      • unattractive concrete buildings lead to a lot of grafting
        • little attraction for investors
      • lead to counter urbanisation
        • rural areas where more attractive than urban
          • brain drain (those who could afford to AKA had a higher paying job) moved
      • inadequate and complex road systems
        • 3.5 miles of subway invite vandalism and crime
      • a lack of academic potential
      • a lot of jobs in manufacturing which is in a huge decline with work going abroad
        • 25,000 jobs lost in the manufacturing sector in the last 6 years
    • 29 % ethnic background, people immigrate here because they have family here but they come here will little skills and qualifications and seek low paid jobs
    • before rebranding the unemployment level was 9% which is nearly three times the UK's
      • after the unemployment level was 9.8%
        • even though it hadn't decreased this is still a sign of success because due to recession the UK's had increased to 7% while in Birmingham it had hardly changed
    • how had Birmingham rebranded
      • aim
        • to improve the quality of the environment
        • to improve access to the city for both public and private transport
      • Bull ring
        • £530 million
        • opened in 2003
        • Signature Architecture
          • iconic building to add identity and appeal
            • drastic styling of a blue wall covered in aluminium discs
          • signature shops
            • ones that you cant find everywhere
        • 8000 staff
        • 50 million shoppers in the first year
      • The mail box
        • transformed Birmingham's old Royal mail sorting office into an upmarket location
          • 40 high end retail shops such as Harvey Nichols, Emporia Armani
        • fancy hotels such as 'Malmasion and days'
        • 200 executive apartments
          • gentrification
            • success
              • building these buildings required intensive amounts of labour
              • improved the buildings and brought people into the area
            • residents are wealthier sp they add more money into the local economy by paying more tax and spending money in local businesses
              • increase the number of high end shops and restaurants
                • will attract more wealthy people
            • increase in house prices due to greater demand
    • success
      • building these buildings required intensive amounts of labour
      • improved the buildings and brought people into the area

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