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Deprivation case studies
Urbanisation- AS geography OCR…read more

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Birmingham, UK
Deprivation facts
· High deprivation, 3rd most deprived city
· 41% residents live in super output areas that are in the
10% most deprived in the UK
· Deprivation clustered in wards surrounding CBD
· Large degree of variation between different areas of the
city (polarization)
Growth facts
· 11 million people
· Industrial revolution, then became de industrialised
· Re imaging and re generation- major retail and commerce
centre…read more

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Birmingham, UK
· 80% tertiary employment
· Reimaging to post industrial city
Economic issues
· New growth put strain on transport- roads become
over crowded at peak times
· Highly skilled jobs go to commuter who live outside
the city
· High unemployment rates surrounding CBD creates
disaffection (feeling unjustly treated and separated
from society) and polarization…read more

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Birmingham, UK
Social issues
· Ranked 16th out of 364 most deprived districts in England
· Has many super output areas ranked in 10% most deprived
· Pockets of deprivation on fringe- old post war council
· High percentage of ethnic minorities- 30% live in inner
Political issues
· Strong polarization between rich and poor
· Lack of tax base to pay for services…read more

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Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh facts
· Population- 160million
· Population density- 1200 per km2
· Birth rate- high but falling 49 per 1000 in 1970 to 28 per
1000 in 2008
· Death rate- falling 28 per 1000 in 1970 to 8 per 1000 in
· Natural increase- high and accelerating1.6% in 1970 2% in
· Infant mortality- falling but high 140 per 1000 in 1970 to
57 per 1000 in 2008
· Population structure- 34% population are below 15yrs old
· Life expectancy- 46 men, 44 women in 1970 now 53 for
both sexes…read more

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Dhaka, Bangladesh
· Physical geography- flat delta prone to flooding
· Literacy rate- low levels (54% men, 31% women)
· Aid- receives $11 per person per year
Growth factors
· 12 million and growing by 300-400,000 per year
· Global shift to manufacturing due to TNC investment due
to cheap labour
Economic issues
· Child labour- half million children work long hours with low
pay leaving little chance to gain an education
· Informal economy
· Growing middle class accentuates poverty (polarization)…read more

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