Power and the People - Part 2

Everything you need to know about Chapter 2 of Power and the People: Challenging royal authority

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  • 2. The Early Modern World
    • 1. Context
      • This period saw the execution of King Charles I
        • England was without monarch for 11 years
      • Establishment of Church of England by Henry VII
        • Religion led to conflicts between monarchs
          • Some, like Pilgrim Fathers, went to America
      • Scientific discoveries were made, e.g. Isaac Newton.
      • Industrial revolution took place by end of century and there were many explorers, e.g. COlumbus
    • 2. The Pilgrimage of Grace 1536
      • What happened?
        • Why did it fail?
          • The Pilgrims outnumbered King's army, so should not have backed down
          • Rebels were too easily convinced by King
        • It began in Lincolnshire 1536
        • They captured one commissioner and forced him to write list of grievances to the King, known as the Lincoln Articles
        • Robert Aske helped spread this to Yorkshire, where army of 30,000 rebels marched
        • They swore a 'Pilgrim's Oath' and marched under the banner of Five Wounds of Christ
        • The rebels army of 50,000 vs King 8,000
        • King promised to pardon all to buy time but went back on his word when they dispersed and he executed leaders
      • Why did this happen?
        • Social causes
          • Unrest among people in Lincolnshire
          • The Statute of Uses imposed restraints on distribution of property
          • People upset Catherine of Aragon divorced and Mary declared illegitimate
          • Poor harvest in 1535 and 1536 raised food prices
        • Economic causes
          • They were worried about increased taxes
          • Rebels complained about payment of the subsidy  demanded of them
          • There were rumours on taxes on births, marriages and deaths
        • Political cuases
          • Cromwell & other politicians thought to be leading King astray
          • Anne Boleyn’s reputation for witchcraft undermined King’s authority.
        • Religious causes
          • Rumours that 1 of the King’s Commissions was coming to take church’s wealth
          • Many in Lincolnshire in favour of trad. Catholic masses but Bishop was a reformer and wanted change
          • Religious houses disbanded so poor people were penniless
          • Yorkshire had similar grievances; wanted the ‘old ways’ of religion restored.
          • A new Prayer Book was issued in 1535
      • What impact did the pilgrimage have?
        • Henry's position as absolute monarch enforced
        • It was a total failure
        • Made sure no one opposed the King; established him as ruthless
        • Sped up changes they were opposed to; all monasteries were closed down
    • 3. English Revolution and Civil War 1642-1645
      • Execution of King Charles I and 3 civil wars known as English Revolution
      • What were the causes of the civil war?
        • Religion
          • Charles wanted religious conformity
          • Charles was thought to be Catholic or to favour them
          • Puritans were more influential (sailed on Mayflower to America)
        • Politics
          • Charles I was a 'weak' and 'treacherous’ ruler
          • As he believed in Divine Right of Kings, he did not consult with parliament (not good as he was weak)
          • Succeeded ruling from 1629 to 1640 without calling Parliament, but in the end he was forced to call Parliament
            • 'No taxation wihtout representation' became a popular slogan.
        • Personalities
          • John Hampden and John Pym led opposition against King and  presented him with list of demands
            • Abolished ship money and customs duty except when agreed by Parliament
            • Transferred control of army from King to Parliament
            • Made sure only Parliament (not the King) could dissolve Parliament
            • Made it law that Parliament had to be called at least every 3 years
          • Cromwell dominated the period, especially after 1945
          • Radicals like John Lilburne etc. were jostling for attention
      • What was the New Model Army?
        • The first fully professional force (as opposed to militia-style)
        • Officers, apart from Cromwell, were prohibited from being MPs
        • They managed to capture Charles, and though a religious army, did not believe in Divine Right
        • Many soldiers were veterans and often had strong religious views
        • What is Political Radicalism and how was the NMA linked?
          • Political Radicalism is the era that evolved due to Charles' bad relationship with Parliament, lasting 11 years until he went broke
            • When Charles finally asked for help they were in no mood to give him what he wanted
              • Parliament became more rebellious
          • The Diggers were a radical group that emerged, that wanted to grow crops together to bring equality
            • They were seen as a threat to the natural order of things
          • The NMA is linked because many soldiers had strong ideas on how the country should be run
          • There was a split between Parliament and Army radicals, as Parliament wanted to dissolve the army once war was over but some in the army disagreed
      • What were the impacts of the English Revolution?
        • Short-term
          • King Charles was put on trial and executed
          • Monarchy temporarily abolished and commonwealth set up
          • The NMA was set up
          • Radical groups like The Diggers emerged (before being marginalised)
        • Long-term
          • Even when monarchy was restored, did not gain full power back and parliament ruled instead
      • Oliver Cromwell
        • After his death...
          • Divisions between civilians and army - led to restoration of Charles II
          • Those who had taken part in execution of Charles I put on trial for treason
          • In 1688 William of Orange (a Protestant) became ruler through parliament
            • Parliament ruled the country
        • Established himself as ruler of England (dictator?) in 1653
        • Imposed his Puritan religious beliefs
          • banned xmas
          • closed theatres
          • stopped women from wearing makeup
        • Became very unpopular and people have a divided opinion of him
    • 4. The American Revolution 1776
      • What happened?
        • 1776 American colonists released the declaration of Independence
        • Britain put up a fight and would have won except France joined the colonists
        • 1781 Britain faced a defeat at the Battle of Yorktown and surrendered
      • Why did it happen?
        • Seven Years' War with France meant more British troops in colonies and increased taxes in order to pay for this
        • Radicals strongly believed in representation (in parliament) if they were going to be taxed
        • Thomas Paine release Common Sense arguing independence
      • What impact did it have?
        • Reaffirmed democratic ideas, freedom of individual and human rights
        • Generated support for radicals
        • It was a significant as it was 1st time a colony rejected rule by European country
      • Who were the colonists?
        • 50,000 were colonists
        • More than half were indentured slaves
        • Some were Pilgrims e.g. Catholics
        • As a result, many had emotional ties to England, but still wanted to be independent
        • From 1619, enslaved Africans - farmed rice and tobacco

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