1750 - 1900 comparisons

Revision for a test on the industrial revolution which is an essay about what changed between 1750 and the 1900's. Information was gathered from a textbook called 'peace and war'. 

  • Created by: Char'Rose
  • Created on: 02-03-12 19:59

1750 overview


Total population was around 11 million

Around 80% of people lived in the countryside

Many babies died before their first birthday

The annual death rate was 28 people per 1000 


Most important industry was farming - food and cotton in particular

Industries were small scale, done in peoples houses or attachments to houses.

There was very little powers, things that were used such as water wheels, horses or human hands. 

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1750 overview continued

Health and Medicine

People did not know germs caused disease

People could do little to fight diseases such as smallpox and diphtheria 

Many people died from diseases


Getting around the country was slow 

People and goods travelled by water when possible

Roads were very poor and lots of people tried to improve them

The journey from London to Edingburgh by boat took a week, and by road it took 12 days.

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1750 continued


Most children in England did not go to school and few could read or write. 

In Scotland all parishes have schools and most people could read and write. 

There were 2 universities in England, 4 in Scotland and 1 in Ireland

Newspapers, novels and plays were becoming popular


King George (2nd) had fewer powers than kings in the 17th century

Parliament made laws for England, Scotland and Wales, but not Ireland

Only 5% of the population could vote. Not women. 

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Total population was around 21 million

About 60% of people lived and worked in the countryside

Many babies still died in their first year of life, but families were very large

The annual death rate was 22 deaths in every 1000 people


Many people still worked in shops, but some were based in factories 

The cotton industry was a lot bigger now, more than the wool industry

Since 1750 the coal production trippled and iron production increaded by 10 times.

Common grazing lands had been turned into sucessful land to grow crops

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1875 continued

Health and Medicine

A vaccine was developed for smallpox but there were no other drugs


There was now 20,000 miles of well surfaced roads

Many canals had been b uilt

In mining areas horse-drawn trams and wagons that ran on rails were used.

The journey from London to Edinburgh took three to five days by boat of 46 hours by road. 

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1875 continued


Most middle-class and upper-class boys (but not many girls) went to school 

Elementary schools in England provided education for children of the poor if they wanted to attend, but they often did not go. 

No new universities were set up

There was a new interest in religion


5% of people could vote in elections

Most Britain's new growing cities were not allowed to elect their own MP's

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Total population was around 40 million

In England 75% of people live in towns. Huge urban areas had developed

The annual death rate was around 18 people per 1000 people 


Many farmers use machines although were mostly horse powered

Industry was dominated by coal, iron, steel and textiles

Steam power had been introduced, even in small factories and workshops

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1900 continued

Health and medicine

Louis Pasteur had discovered germs kill disease, and created vaccinations 

Antiseptic was developed

Local councils began to improve water supplies and sewer improvements


Railways served all parts of Britain. They helped to make Britain more united

Many canal companies and turnpike trusts had been driven were a faster method of transport. 

The journey from London to Edinburgh took 30 hours by boat and at least 46 hours by road and 9 hours by train.

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1900 continued


School was compulsory for all five to twelve year old girls and boys

Many more people could read and write

There were ten universities in England, five in Scotland, one in Ireland and one in Wales

Newspaper and books publishing were expanding


Most men could now vote, but women could not vote

The government in London and local authorities now played a large part in everyone's life. They had improved living and working conditions 

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