History- Medicine (How did individuals impact medicine and surgery?)

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  • People who made a change in Medicine
    • Pare
      • Pare developed his ideas during his years as a barber-surgeon, when he accompanied the French army
        • In 1536 he discovered by chance (when the cautery oil he used to cauterise the wounds of his patients ran out) that wounds healed better if they were treated with soothing ointments and immediately noted the improved condition of his patients
        • Paré's next contribution to medicine was his promotion of ligature (tying off) of blood vessels to prevent hemorrhage (uncontrolled bleeding) during amputations
        • In a book on these new techniques, Pare also included large parts of  Vesalius's work on anatomy, translated from the original Latin into French
          • This information dramatically increased the barber-surgeon's knowledge of anatomy, since the typical barber-surgeon was never taught Latin as part of his training
    • Versalius
      • Vesalius performed dissections himself during lectures and illustrated the lesson with large, detailed anatomical charts
        • He corrected Galen's mistakes as he only did dissections on animals (Galen was not allowed to dissect human bodies because of religious restrictions)
        • Vesalius wrote one of the most important books in medical history. Published in 1543, it was the world's first textbook of anatomy called "The Fabric of the Human Body"
          • It contained detailed anatomical descriptions of all parts of the human body, including directions for carrying out dissections and magnificent, detailed illustrations
    • Galen
      • Galen  dissected and accurately observed all kinds of animals, sometimes mistakenly applying what he saw to the human body.
        • He was the first to observe that muscles work in contracting pairs, and described the heart valves and the structural differences between arteries and veins.
      • He was the first to observe that muscles work in contracting pairs, and described the heart valves and the structural differences between arteries and veins.
    • Harvey
      • Harvey was the first researcher to discovery the circulation of blood through the body
        • By dissecting both living and dead animals, Harvey became convinced that Galen's ideas about blood movement must be wrong, particularly the ideas that blood was formed in the liver and absorbed by the body, and that blood flowed through the septum (dividing wall) of the heart.
        • He published this concept of blood circulation in 1628. It provoked controversy and hostility from the medical community of the time as it was contradicting Galen
    • Jenner
      • Jenner 's work has been built upon by many successors who have discovered new vaccinations to reduce suffering and death, particularly for children
        • On May 14, 1796, he removed the fluid of a cowpox blister from dairymaid Sarah Nelmes, and inoculated James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy who soon came down with cowpox
          • Six weeks later, he inoculated the boy with smallpox. The boy remained healthy, and Jenner had proved his theory. Jenner called his method "vaccination"
        • Within 18 months, the number of deaths from smallpox had dropped by two-thirds in England. By 1800, 100,000 people had been vaccinated worldwide




Good revision material



more individuals needed like john hunter but good thanks 







Poppy mikealson


how do I see the mind map, I t won't let me download it 



Thanks Ammarah123

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