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Past Papers ­ Paper 1

2000 - Medicine

2) Individuals have been important in the development of medicine. Choose
one of the following individuals

Hippocrates
Florence Nightingale
Louis Pasteur

a) Describe the developments he or she made in medicine (5)
b) Explain why the individual was able to make these…

Page 2

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2) In the 1840's the Mormons decided to go West

a) Explain why the Mormons decided to move to the Great Salt Lake (5)
b) Did the leadership of Joseph Smith help or harm the Mormons? Explain your
answer (7)
c) Why were the Mormons successful at the Great Salt…

Page 3

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2001 ­ American West

2) Many different types of people travelled West

a) Explain what dangers faced travellers crossing the Plains and the Rockies
(5)
b) Did homesteaders and the Mormons travel west for the same reasons?
Explain your answer using your knowledge (7)
c) Who were the more successful…

Page 4

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4) James Simpson and Joseph Lister both made important contributions to
the development of surgery

a) Explain what problems faced surgeons in the early nineteenth century (5)
b) Was Lister's work more important than Simpson's in the development of
surgery? Explain your answer (7)
c) `After the work of Simpson…

Page 5

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Andreas Vesalius
Joseph Lister
Florence Nightingale

A) Explain the advances he or she made in medicine (5)
B) Explain the difficulties he or she faced (7)
C) How far was he or she helped by factors other than his or her own
contribution? Explain your answer (8)

2004 ­ Medicine…

Page 6

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3) White Americans and Indians often came into conflict on the Great
Plains

a) Explain why many white Americans thought the Plains Indians were savages
(5)
b) Explain why the Battle of the Little Big Horn took place when it did (7)
c) `Custer lost the Battle of the Little…

Page 7

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2) During the second half of the nineteenth century, many people moved
west to set up homesteads

a) Briefly describe the problems that settlers faced during their journey
westwards (5)
b) Explain why the American Government passed the Homestead Act of 1862
(7)
c) How successful were homesteaders in overcoming…

Page 8

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b) Explain why there was so much opposition to smallpox vaccination
throughout the nineteenth century (7)
c) Who contributed more to the development of vaccination, Jenner or
Pasteur? Explain your answer (8)

2006 ­ American West

2) The Plains Indians eventually lost the Plains

a) Briefly describe how the Plains…

Page 9

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4) Progress in medicine was rapid in the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries

a) Briefly describe the main problems of public health in the early nineteenth
century (5)
b) Explain why there was so much improvement in public health in the second
half of the nineteenth century (7)
c) The second…

Page 10

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3) The development of surgery has been an important part of the
history of medicine

a) Briefly describe the work of surgeons in the Middle Ages (5)
b) Explain why the work of Pare is important in the history of surgery (7)
c) `The most important advances in surgery were…

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