Opposition to Charles II, 1660-1667

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  • Opposition to Charles II, 1660-67
    • The Fate of the Regicides
      • Part of the restoration was making sure that the monarchy was secure
        • The Convention Parliament ordered that the regicides should meet justice
      • Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw had all died and had their bodies exhumed
        • There was a trial for remaining regicides
          • In 1660, one was hanged, nine others were hanged, drawn and quartered and three others suffered the same fate in 1662
      • There was a general pardon by the Indemnity and Act of Oblivion (1660) but 29 were exempt
      • In 1662 there were show trials of non-regicides of men like John Lambert
        • Many refused to beg for mercy and were beheaded, however Lambert did beg and was imprisoned
    • Lambert's Rising, 1660
      • Lambert escaped from the Tower of London in April and tried to rekindle the civil war by calling on supported of the 'good old cause' to rally at Edgehill
        • He was recaptured nearby after his force of men fell apart because there was sufficient support of army unity
    • The New Model Army
      • Hutton argues that by the late 1650s the army was strong enough to carry out another revolution, however Monck's input reduced the possibility
      • By 1659-60 most officers accepted that ultimate authority lay with parliament
        • Those who did oppose the monarchy were divided, they could not unite in opposition to the restoration of monarchy
    • Venner's Rising, 1661
      • Thomas Venner was a Fifth Monarchist who had been imprisoned in 1657-9 for his uprising against Cromwell
        • He led a group of 50 supporters into an uprising in London in 1661
          • It took four days, the Duke of York, Monck and 700 horses to put them down
      • Venner denounced Charles as "an enemy, a rebel and traitor to Christ"
      • After the uprising there were arrests and persecutions of non-conformists
        • A few days later Venner was hanged, drawn and quartered
    • Northern or Yorkshire Plot, October 1653
      • Sbout 50 men gathered at a place in West Yorkshire and were led by Captain Thomas Oates and Joshua Greathead
        • Their plan was to overthrow the Royalist stronghold in Leeds and coordinate with others in Scotland and Ireland
      • They failed in numbers - 26 were hanged, drawn and quartered
        • The plot was fairly limited
      • It is said to be one of the causes for the 1664 Conventicle Act
    • Conclusion
      • The chief problem for opposition was the persecution and action taken by the regime
      • Some main reasons for the failure of opposition include...
        • The purging of corporations weakened dissenters and potential opposition
        • Under the May 1662 militia act, Lord Lieutenants levied £70,000 for the year to support troops
          • Each militia unit was to be kept for 14 days at a time and Charles had 8,000 soldiers alongside the militia

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