Settlement, Cavalier Parliament and Clarendon

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The Restoration Settlement
Indemnity - Free pardon for all who weren't excluded by Parliament. Royalists wanted
revenge but all were pardoned in the end apart from the regicides and 30 others.
Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw were exhumed , hung , drawn and quartered. In all 13 were
executed for regicide , 19 were imprisoned for life and others were pardoned. Some fled
Purpose achieved? - Indemnity was achieved.
Land Settlement - Under Breda this was to be decided by Parliament. Royalists,
Catholics, Bishops and the Crown had all lost land. It wasn't a simple task - buyers had
legal rights, many had helped the Crown. Some had lost their land through debt and paying
the decimation tax, some had collaborated with the Republican's. Lots of Royalists had
bought back their land through agents. Crown land, church land and land from the non
pardoned was taken back. Royalists had to go through the courts or the House of Lords
though most got back their lands.
Purpose Achieved? -Most were satisfied but there were always individuals who blamed
their plights on the monarchy; that enemies of the Crown had done better than them out
of it. Most happy as traditional ruling classes re- established and county committees
Army - Army (and Navy) was promised payment for their services but the grant voted by
Parliament was £375000 too short. NMA disbanded successfully as the radicals were
now already isolated. Charles kept a small army of 8000 men including the British Army's
first regiment - the Coldstream Guards. He was also granted the militia control in July
1661 and the ability to raise up to £70,000 to support them every year for 3 years in 1662.
Constitution - Charles II reign declared to have started on the date his father died. All of
the legislation Charles I signed was accepted as law. (No more ship money, prerogative
courts, bishops in Lords). New Triennial Act created in 1664 - no longer compulsory to
call Parliament but it was hoped Charles would do so every three years, Parliament no
longer needed to last for 5 months. Prerogative like militia command,foreign policy
command and ministerial appointment all kept by the King. Any legislation created by
ordinances void unless they were passed by Parliament and signed by the King.
Purpose achieved?; Parliament successfully found legality links back to Charles I's reign.
Though many criticise its failure to take into account changes after 1641.
Finance - Charles was thought to need £1,200,000 but was £300,000 short in 1661. The
Crown debt was £925,000 (£550,000 of Charles I and II's own debt). Purveyance and
wardship abolished in return for £100,000 per year excise tax on liquor. Charles granted
Tonnage and Poundage for life. Hearth tax created in 1662.
Purpose Achieved? - For Parliament Charles' dependance on them made sure he did not
turn to absolutism. Most didn't understand finance and thought the figure was enough.
Crown has the same problems it faced before.
Religion - Breda had promised freedom of consciences but it was the Church of England
that was fully restored. When ministers had to swear to use Anglican liturgy 1/5 resigned.
Charles and Clarendon wanted greater toleration for Presbyterians; so much so that he
issued a declaration from Worcester House that bishop powers should by limited by
Presbyterian councils. Presbyterians were offered positions as Bishops but little was
sorted quickly as the army was the priority. Clarendon Code. Leading Quakers imprisoned

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Many see the Cromwellian church as being broader and more tolerant than the
restored church. Dissent continued in private homes like Catholicism.
The Cavalier Parliament
Who were they?
· Included 100 members of Long Parliament. Seen by many as retribution. Led to many
saying that the monarchy restored was that of 1641. This Parliament were not going to
let Charles get away with everything he wanted.
· Generally more intolerant when it came to the Restoration - wanted a harsher religious
settlement.…read more

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King issued a Declaration of Indulgence in December 1662 towards Catholics and
Protestant dissenters. But this caused more opposition.
· Viability? - Church of England was easily restored. Toleration of Catholics was a non
starter, dissenters were punished but couldn't be removed and Presbyterians remained
in large groups but didn't venture into politics and so would have been a good ally.
Financial Policies
· The financial limits on Charles still remained from 1641; Charles couldn't levy taxes
without Parliament.…read more

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He is often criticised for his immoral nature - womanising and gambling. He had a string
of famous mistresses and bastard children including Barbara Villiers and Nell Gwyn. His
court was full of similar debauched goings on.
· His friends were similarly immoral including the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of
· His court was full of High profile Catholics including his mother, wife and brother. Which
was a potential political disaster waiting to happen.…read more

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Yes they looked for stability and gave Charles more powers for that but they never
underestimated their own existence and tried to ensure their position for the future with
the Triennial Act of 1664 and the shortfalls in Charles' financial aid. When things went
wrong Parliament were not afraid to talk out against ministers like Clarendon and even
denying the King of his desire for toleration. Both sides had to make their sacrifices.…read more

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Clarendon could not keep control of Parliament and so relations between King and
Parliament became strained from 1663.
· Resolutions to these problems were only solved by the King or new upcoming men.
Charles now wondered if he should keep hold of Clarendon after all.
· Clarendon was naive and did not rig elections to get royalists in, this helped reduce his
favour with the King.…read more


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