1667-1678 Note Pack - British History

Includes information on:

  • Downfall of Clarendon 
  • Charles II's failed opposition
  • The Cabal
  • Thomas Danby
  • Distrust between Parliament and Crown 
  • Division between Parliament and Crown post 1672
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1667-1676 Revision Pack
Failure of Charles' Opposition
Those who tried to prevent the Restoration or the radicals
Lambert's rising April 1660 ­ Lambert fails to make the most of the discontent out there and
fails against Monck's army. He was eventually captured.
The Army were now isolated with no political support. Most wanted
government by Parliament. The opposition were now too divided.
Venner's rising crushed ­ mass arrests and nonconformist persecution
Yorkshire plot of 1663 ­ helped the King raise support, 50 men tried to
organise rebellion ­ Ireland and Scotland ­ easily crushed.
Reasons for opposition failures:
Too small
Rebels were divided in themselves, as it was taking place all over
the country
Charles had a standing army of 8,000 to repel them
Lord Lieutenants raised £70,000 to support troops
Militia could be kept ready for a fortnight so they were constantly ready
Non conformists took a smaller part in politics
Regicide treatment discouraged others
Providence now seemed to be with the King, which was crucial
The fall of Clarendon
Who was he?
Gentry lawyer from Wiltshire credited with the Restoration settlement
Was member of the Long parliament and royalist sympathiser? Fought with the King
Charles II's most trusted advisor whilst in exile
Drafted in Declaration of Breda and worked very much in the
King's interests which was especially important as Charles didn't
like dealing with admin much
Clarendon was dominant during the period but also honest. His
name was put to the stream of religious reform even if he didn't
agree with it all.
However, there were some problems with Clarendon...
Jealousy - Clarendon was not very well liked at court or in
government ­ many saw him as the block to their own personal
He was also seen as blocking the government reform work which desperately needed.
The sale of Dunkirk ­ England had little French territory and Dunkirk was the last English
foothold in France. Clarendon sold Dunkirk for £300,000
The Dutch War - When the Dutch War ended, it was Clarendon who ended up bearing the
brunt of the criticism for the defeat and its expense
Clarendon was now isolated and the King took to the idea of making him a political

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No heir to the throne ­ Clarendon had helped to negotiate the marriage of Charles II to
Catherine of Braganza, a Portuguese Princess. The fact that there were no children from this
marriage was blamed on Clarendon
Daughter's marriage ­ Clarendon's daughter Anne became pregnant and said that Charles'
younger brother James was the father. Anne and James were married, Clarendon's daughter
was now the wife of the heir to the throne.…read more

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In any case it seems to have provided a nail in the coffin.
Seaward: the dismissal of Clarendon marked "the end of an era of administration and of policy."
Hence, it was the end of somebody's control and their policy ­ the Clarendon Code ­ became closer
to religious toleration
Effects of Clarendon's Downfall
The King looked weak as he cited Parliament's attacks on Clarendon as the reason for his
dismissal. He looked like he was bending to their power.…read more

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Coward commented that Arlington's correct behaviour reflected his
diplomatic and administrative background. He was the type of royal
servant who is often willing to subordinate his own ideas in order to
carry out his master's policy.
Buckingham was a contrast to Arlington, being an independent man who
associated with unorthodox freethinkers.…read more

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Crown's View
o Charles wanted to allow greater religious freedom but Parliament used its financial
control of the monarch to stop this
Parliament's View
o In late 1666, the Commons began to investigate the accounts of the Navy
o They appointed commissioners in Feb 1667 to examine the public accounts when it
have a grant of £1.8 million.
o They used finance to restrict Charles' aims of toleration.…read more

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This showed the length that Charles would go to get money for war and keep his alliance
with France. Parliament knew they had the weapon of finance, which they used to control
Parliament of January to February 1674 (issue of Catholicism)
Buckingham and Arlington came under attack, with B accused of popery and promoting
French alliance against Holland, but he blamed these things on Arlington.…read more


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