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Relations between Charles II and Parliament 16671678: The "Cabal"
Charles II's Parliaments
Name Number Met Dissolved Sessions
1st 1660 1660 2
2nd 1661 1679 16
During crisis* 3rd
1679 1679 2
4th 1680 1681 1
During crisis * 5 th
1681 161 1
* During the exclusion crisis
The Cabal AN OVERVIEW (do not need to learn of by heart)
Clifford Baron Clifford of Chudleigh
Catholic man, and member of the Privy Council from 1666. He was Pro French and
helped negotiate the secret treaty of Dover. He opposed the test act of 1673 and
resigned because of it.
Ashley Earl of Shaftesbury
Involved in the republic, then joined the royalists and was part of the delegation that
invited Charles back to England. He supported the declaration of Indulgence and the test
act. Ashley took a leading role in the exclusion crisis and in 1682 fled to Holland.
Buckingham Duke of Buckingham
Member of the Privy Council and Clarendon's main opponent. He supported the
declaration of indulgence but was dismissed by Charles in 1674. Didn't support the
exclusion of James II.
Arlington Earl of Arlington
Catholic, another opponent of Clarendon. But he had no major position in government,
over, he did control a lot of foreign affairs in the late 1660's, he lost influence from 1674.
Lauderdale Duke of Lauderdale
He was a Scottish Presbyterian and the governor of Scotland effectively.
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Traditional view of the Cabal
1673 saw the start of Charles pursuing his own policies, the traditional view is that the
Cabal embodied a strategy to make England Catholic and Charles absolute. It was seen
that this strategy would be achieved by making closer ties with the French and avenging
the defeat of the 2nd Dutch war.…read more