Napoleon III's domestic policy.

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  • Created on: 21-05-14 20:18
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  • Napoleon III's Domestic Policy
    • "Credit Mobilier"/"Credit Foncier"
      • Provided investment for industrial concerns and urban development.
    • Railway system extended and length of track grew to 11,000 miles by 1870.
    • Industrial growth.
      • Pig iron production rose.
    • French imports/exports.
      • Value rose from 2615 million francs in 1851 to 8008 million francs in 1870.
    • Firm believer in free trade.
      • 1860 - Anglo-French Commercial Treaty: reduced duties on British coal and manufactured goods in return for concessions on tariffs on French wines/brandy.
        • Reciprocal tariff reductions with Belgium, german Zollverein, Italy, etc.
      • Policies were opposed by small business owners who were supportive of protection.
    • Paris was remodelled under Baron Hausmann.
      • 20,000 houses demolished, perhaps twice that many created.
    • Politically docile.
      • Local Prefects exerted pressure on behalf of the regime.
        • 1852 - only 8 out of 261 representatives in the Legislative Chamber were opposed to the regime.
        • 1857 - Republicans only had five Deputies in the Chamber.
      • But things began to deteriorate from the late 1850's...
        • Ultramontane Catholics became dissatisfied as Church schools came into conflict with the proponents of secular education and because Napoleon III supported Cavour's policies in Italy.
    • Attempted to broaden base of support by making concessions to the left.
      • Senate and Legislative Chamber were allowed to reply to the Emperor's address and publish their debates.
      • 1867 - Allowed to question government ministers.
      • 1864 - Strikes permitted.
      • 1868 - Press controls relaxed.
      • These policies were a calculated risk...
        • May have preserved the Second Empire, but offered greater scope to opposition too.
        • Considerable problems during 1860s...
          • Emperor's health was failing.
          • 1865 - Duc de Morny (most gifted politician of the Second Empire) died.
            • His successor (Rouher) was not of a high calibre.
          • Leftist opposition continued to increase.
            • Elections in 1863/1869 saw the election of many Republicans to the point where they dominated representation from major towns and cities.
            • 1869 - Thiers' centrist Third Party won 116 seats; 3.3 million people voted against government.
    • Made Legislative Chamber a proper parliament with attendant powers.
      • Regime wasn't in serious danger from opposition.
      • Government never lost an election.
      • May 1870 - A Plebiscite on the changes approved them; 7 million voted in favour with 1 and a half million against.
    • POSITIVES
      • Credit agencies (banks)
      • Railway development.
      • Industrial growth (e.g. pig iron).
      • Size of french economy grew.
      • Free trade agreements.
      • Remodelling of Paris.
      • Early political control/support.
      • Political reforms to broaden base of support.
      • Legislative Chamber turned into proper Parliament with powers.
      • Regime not in serious danger from opposition.
      • May 1870 - Plebiscite backed changes.
    • NEGATIVES
      • Industrial growth still less than UK/Prussia.
      • Credit Mobilier ran into trouble from mid 1850s.
      • Small businesses opposed free trade.
      • Poorer people lost accommodation.
      • Reforms offered more scope to opposition.
      • Growth in Republicanism.
      • Death of able Duc de Morny.
  • NEGATIVES
    • Industrial growth still less than UK/Prussia.
    • Credit Mobilier ran into trouble from mid 1850s.
    • Small businesses opposed free trade.
    • Poorer people lost accommodation.
    • Reforms offered more scope to opposition.
    • Growth in Republicanism.
    • Death of able Duc de Morny.

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