Hospitals, Doctors & Training

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  • Created by: Julia
  • Created on: 31-05-13 15:22
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  • Hospitals, Doctors & Training
    • Late Middle Ages
      • physicians for rich
        • studied Galen at university
          • urine and astrology charts
      • For the poor
        • barber surgeon
        • apothecary
        • wise women
      • hospitals run by monks
        • part of the monastry
        • care not cures
    • Renaissance
      • physicians stopped using urine and astrology charts
      • surgeons
        • discoveries of renaissance and work of hunter brothers improved training
      • midwives
        • invention of forceps
          • men began to dominate midwifery
          • by 1750s surgeon apothecaries began to emerge (like modern GP)
    • Industrial Revolution
      • 1815 Apprentice Act
      • hospitals and nursing made more professional by Florence Nightingale
        • Nightingale School for Nurses 1860
        • improved sanitation (water, drains, sewers) and ventilation
        • nurses studied hard, wore uniform, became skilled assistants rather than cleaners
        • nursing also improved by anaesthetics and antisceptics
      • poor law unions built infirmaries and fever hospitals with resident doctors 1860s
      • rich still avoided hospitals
        • paid subscriptions to voluntary hospitals
      • hospitals were free to attend
        • paid for by workplace and church collections
      • late 19th c growth of pharmaceutical industry and patent medicines
        • based on developments in chemistry and technology
    • 20th Century
      • 1911 National Insurance Act gave working men access to a doctor
      • 1902 Midwives Act meant that midwives had to be trained and registered
      • 1948 NHS
        • Nationalised health care
        • hospitals were under government control
        • health care was free
        • access to wide range of technology, vaccines and cures
          • computers
          • scanners
          • ultrasound
          • key hole surgery

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