Medicine - Professionalising Medicine

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Improvements in medical training

  • Teaching hospitals developed where students could observe doctors at work
  • Many students dissected bodies to understand human anatomy
  • Following Pasteur's germ theory, there was more emphasis on studying microbes and disease through microscope
  • Training included how to use improved technology such as thermometers and stethoscopes to help diagnose illness


  • Doctors needed a certificate from:
  •  - The Royal College of Surgeons
  •  - The Royal College of Physicians
  •  - The Society of Apothecaries
  • After 1815, the latter two set an exam to be passed before certificates


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