Edexcel AS History Unit 1 E3 Italy: 1896 to 1912.

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  • History AS-Section 1-1896 to 1912
    • Italy as a great power.
      • Northern Italy literate and industrial whereas Southern Italy was largely illiterate and agricultural.
      • Income only £8 a year in Italy compared to £31 a head in England, therefore didn't look like a great power in comparison.
      • 60% of the population worked in agriculture in Italy compared to just 10% in England; making Italy look less developed.
      • A lot emigration away from Italy to America, already 1.5 million immigrants in America in 1891.
      • Transformismo was rife in politics.
      • In the South over 80% of the pop was illiterate.
      • 1882 franchise extended to all men over 21 who were literate, by 1895 56% of men in the North could vote but only 26% could vote in the South.
      • Political agreements were made such as the Mediterranean Agreements in the 1890s under Crispi which helped Italy being seen as a great power.
      • Defeat at Adowa in 1896 was humiliating and exposed Italy's weaknesses to the world
    • Giolitti's reforms.
      • Government spending increased by 50% from 1900 to 1907.
      • Brought in child protection laws in 1902 and women's working day was limited to 11 hours.
      • In 1907 a compulsory rest day each week was introduced.
      • Founded the Bank of Italy in 1893.
      • From 1906 to 1910 there was an average of 1500 strikes a year.
      • Real wages increased by 2.5% every year from 1901 to 1911.
      • In 1912  Giolitti extended the right to vote to all men over 21 regardless of literacy, the electorate rose from 3 million to 8.5 million.
      • War with Libya in 1911/1912 took longer than expected and was extremely violent.
    • Rising Socialism.
      • In 1895 the PSI were founded.
      • Achieved a quarter of the votes in the 1913 elections, however never had more than 50,000 members.
      • There were three socialist parties by 1913.


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