Edexcel AS History Unit 1 E3 Italy:1918 to 1923

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  • History AS- Section 2 - 1918 to 1923; Appeal of fascism and impacts of WW1.
    • Impact of WW1 on Italy
      • Entry to the war was criticized by the Pope.
      • D'Annunzio wanted to enter the war to bring glory to Italy.
      • Entry into the war satisfied nationalists.
      • Resulted in bread riots in 1917 in Turin killing 50.
      • 5 million Italians were conscripted to fight the war.
      • Real wages dropped by 25%
      • At the end of the war, Italy had a budget deficit of 23.3 billion lire
      • Took out loans from Britain and USA.
      • Resulted in Italian debt increasing from 16 billion lire in 1914 to 85 billion lire in 1919.
      • Mini economic boom during the war, as seen through how FIAT's capital increased from 25 million to 125 million lire.
      • The government printed more money in response the economic problems and by 1920 the lira was worth 25% of its 1914 value.
      • Cost of living quadrupled.
    • Impact of WW1 on the Liberal State
      • Failed to get all of the territory agreed by the Treaty of London in 1915 or the Treaty of Saint Germain in 1919. Dalmatia and the German Colonies were not given.
      • Fiume was not promised in the Treaty of Saint Germain, but was taken in September 1919 in defiance of the Italian government by nationalist ex-soldiers, led by D'Annunzio.
      • Number of strikers went up from 170,000 in 1914 to 2 million in 1920.
      • New social divisions.
        • Soldiers against shirkers, peasants against workers.
        • Deepened the North/South divide, as the war boom had only benefited the North.
        • Resulted in socialist trade unions memberships increasing from 250,00 to 2 million 1918 to 1920.
      • Unemployment was at 2 million by 1919.
      • Orlando introduced universal male suffrage regardless of age to every man who had served at the front in December 1918.
    • Mussolini and the spread and appeal of fascism
      • Weakness of opponents
        • Ineffective prior governments, previous Italian governments lasted an average of 2 years.
        • Four socialist parties in 1913, not a united force against fascism.

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