Fascist Italy - Totalitarian unit - AS History AQA

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  • Created on: 03-05-13 21:49
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Fascist Italy:
Fascist ideology:
29th October 1922 = King Vector Emmanuel 3rd offered Mussolini prime minister
Elections of 1921 = Mussolini hadn't done to well
Mussolini: was intolerant of diversity, wanted to create a one-party state + the cult of the Il Duce
Ideology changed frequently: theoretical statements of fascism where written years after M had
been in power
DENIS MACK SMITH: `fascism was not a system of immutable beliefs, but a path to political power'
The development of fascist ideas:
WW1 = destroyed empires (German and Turkish) and replaced them with parliamentary democracies
that couldn't cope with social + economical problems
War = was responsible for creating Worlds first communist state and the reaction to communism
aided development of Fascism
Mussolini: originally editor of socialist newspaper Avanti in 1912, argued in favour of Italy entering
the war and as a result was expelled from socialist party. Set up own newspaper, went to war... 1917
he became injured.
1919 = Mussolini founded the League of Combat
Fascist movement had similarities with the PPI and PSI showed a concern for the better welfare of
Italian people
Fascist movement wanted to gain support from working class and ex-soldiers that didn't make
party distinctive
As a result of their commonness 1919 November elections they got let than 2% votes.
Fascim was against = trade uninons, PSI, capitalism, big businesses, monarchy and Church
Fascism developed as an alternative to internationalism of communism and the failure of liberal
democracy who were responsible for the mutilated victory and who had betrayed the people was an
alternative ideology that appealed.
Fascist ideology: 1919-39
November 1921 = fascist movement = national political party = PNF ASDVBV xccc c ccc
M tried to win power politically so changed the fascist political programme
Focused winning support from
1) property-owning middle class rather than working, THEREFORE purposed wealth tax in 1919
had disappeared
2) No longer attacked the catholic church argued it's freedom will be guaranteed
3) Adopted programme that focused on anti-socalism + defending businesses and capitalism
from threat of trade unions

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Mussolini = `Fascism is not only a party it is also a regime, not only a regime but a faith, not
only a faith but a religion
5) Heart of fascist ideology = nationalism, militarism, violence and totalitarian ideology that
could solve Italy's problems and it had to be the only ideology.
6) Extreme nationalism = led to the belief Italians were entitled to land in Africa at the expense
of inferior races
7) Economic alternative to capitalism and socialism = corporate state.…read more

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Mussolini the beneficiary of this collapse
The weakness of Liberal Italy post-war:
Never had the support of all population after unification
Strong regionalism between industrial north and rural south and lack of support for
regime by papacy led to tthe gov. being something that didn't represent masses
`mutilated victory' italy was under the impression it would receive rich rewards . Italy
expected to receive territory from Turkish empire and African colonies and city of fiume.…read more

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Novemeber 1921 = 1) M united the movements as a single policical party = PNF
2) Returned to party policy of squadre violence
Fascist violence = suggested communist threat = growing + government was weak
1 august 1922 = general strike began if gov failed to restore order M said he would
restore order
2nd august = strikers defeated in genoa + ancona + leghorn
3rd august = fascists took over Milan driving out the socialist gov.…read more

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King wasn't prepared to pass a decree that proposed to grant a 2/3 majority of seats in
chamber of deputies to largest party ( over 25% of votes in national elections)
Novemeber 1923 = tried to pass this law through parliament a month before his emergency decree
ran out
Assured that the law = end weak gov. + provide Italy with a strong gov.…read more

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Italian totalitarianism in 1930's:
1) Fascist system of life stresses the importance of the state and recognises the individual
only if his interests concide with those of the state
2) State is all embracing, outside of it no human or spiritual values may exist
3) Fascism enforces discipline and makes use of authority
Why is fascist Italy intolerant?
1) Fascism stressed the subordination of the individual to the state.…read more

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Jan 1939 = parliament abolished itself replaced by chamber of fasces and corporations
1928 = king accepted impotence = so fascist grand council would chose the prime minister
Local govs.…read more

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October 1926 = revised party statute affirming the strength of Il Duce by officially making
M head of party
Made all party posts subject to selection by M
Confirmed the fascist grand council (chosen by M) made policy
11) Party itself purged = 170000 extremists purged
Italian police force under state control
Individual Ras = to concerned about fighting eachother to threathen M post
Economic diversity:
Not an ideology that contained explicit ideas for economic reform
Fascist state = all-encompassing + totalitarian so there would…read more

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Italian parliament to ensure Italian gov.…read more

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M had to tolerate the Church = undermined his grip on Italy
Pope= rival for affection of people's support
Catholic organisation and values were in conflict with Fascism 1931 Pope opposed M
efforts to suppress Catholic action and said Fascist ideology was pagan
Catholic actions activities were confines to those of a religious nature = former PPI weren't
allowed to be leaders
Pope also objected tp anti-semetic measures = death of Pius X1 in 1939 = prevented a clash
between church and state and new…read more


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