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Fascist Italy:

Fascist ideology:
29th October 1922 = King Vector Emmanuel 3rd offered Mussolini prime minister
Elections of 1921 = Mussolini hadn't done to well
Mussolini: was intolerant of diversity, wanted to create a one-party state + the cult of the Il Duce
Ideology changed frequently: theoretical statements of fascism…

Page 2

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4) Mussolini = `Fascism is not only a party it is also a regime, not only a regime but a faith, not
only a faith but a religion
5) Heart of fascist ideology = nationalism, militarism, violence and totalitarian ideology that
could solve Italy's problems and it had to be…

Page 3

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2) why was Mussolini the beneficiary of this collapse

The weakness of Liberal Italy post-war:
Never had the support of all population after unification
Strong regionalism between industrial north and rural south and lack of support for
regime by papacy led to tthe gov. being something that didn't represent masses…

Page 4

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Novemeber 1921 = 1) M united the movements as a single policical party = PNF
2) Returned to party policy of squadre violence
Fascist violence = suggested communist threat = growing + government was weak
1 august 1922 = general strike began if gov failed to restore order M said…

Page 5

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King wasn't prepared to pass a decree that proposed to grant a 2/3 majority of seats in
chamber of deputies to largest party ( over 25% of votes in national elections)
Novemeber 1923 = tried to pass this law through parliament a month before his emergency decree
ran out
Assured…

Page 6

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Italian totalitarianism in 1930's:

1) Fascist system of life stresses the importance of the state and recognises the individual
only if his interests concide with those of the state
2) State is all embracing, outside of it no human or spiritual values may exist
3) Fascism enforces discipline and makes…

Page 7

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Jan 1939 = parliament abolished itself replaced by chamber of fasces and corporations

1928 = king accepted impotence = so fascist grand council would chose the prime minister

Local govs. = abolished and replaced by fascist appointees

Established control over civil service, army and judiciary:

1) Enhanced status of military…

Page 8

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10) October 1926 = revised party statute affirming the strength of Il Duce by officially making
M head of party
Made all party posts subject to selection by M
Confirmed the fascist grand council (chosen by M) made policy
11) Party itself purged = 170000 extremists purged
Italian police force…

Page 9

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1939 the chamber of fasces and corporations = set up based on national council of
corporatons and it replaced Italian parliament to ensure Italian gov. had economical interests
Corporate state = didn't quite deliver created jobs for party members but employers
enhanced salary with bribes from employees and corporate state…

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M had to tolerate the Church = undermined his grip on Italy

Pope= rival for affection of people's support
Catholic organisation and values were in conflict with Fascism 1931 Pope opposed M
efforts to suppress Catholic action and said Fascist ideology was pagan
Catholic actions activities were confines to those…

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